Open Access Minireview Article

Beyond Drugs in Eliminating Malaria Scourge in Nigeria; Scaling-up Vector Control Strategies

B. O. Ogbonna, C. E. Ejim, G. N. Ele, I. G. Ohiaeri, L. N. Ezenekwe, C. N. Nwako, O. N. Ilonzo

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/28057

Integrated vector control management strategy plays a pivotal role and occupies a vantage position today in World Health Organizations (WHO) road map to malaria elimination and Nigeria has the highest malaria burden in Sub-Saharan Africa. So much attention and huge financial and economic resources have been invested in chemotherapy for malaria prevention and control. The article identified feasible non- drug measures in malaria prevention and control, and suggested a paradigm beyond drug use in combating the scourge. Electronic search of relevant materials in official search engines was used in this study. Key words like mosquito, vector, malaria, prevention, control, and Nigeria were used individually and in combination for search of relevant articles. Search was carried out using Embase, Medline and Google scholar to download published articles using the keywords individually and in combinations. Articles were sorted based on defined inclusion criteria. Official sites were used to extract vital information relevant to the subject. Malaria causes over 300 000 deaths annually in Nigeria. Under five mortality due to malaria was 168 per 1000 live births. She losses N132 billion ($900 million USD) to malaria related cost annually. Huge resources channeled towards chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis coupled with high cost of therapy has complicated the prevention and control efforts. Evidence abounds of countries that attained elimination status and complete eradication through non-drug measures. A gap exists in over the years in malaria prevention and control programmes and policies through suboptimal use of non-drug measures. Huge efforts and resources have been invested in drug measures of the control mechanism. Integrated vector control mechanism suggests being the way forward beyond chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis.


Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Studies on the Effects of Zidovudine, Nevirapine, Lamivudine and Bioclean II on Female HIV/AIDS Cases in Nigeria

I. N. Ibeh, M. A. Okungbowa, N. I. Ibeh, B. I. Adejumo

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/16569

Definite cure for HIV/AIDS is not yet documented and over 40 million people in the world are believed to be infected with the virus. The present study evaluates the effects of Zidovudine + Lamivudine + Nevirapine (HAART) and Bioclean II on female HIV/AIDS cases in Nigeria. Candidates on HAART (n=5) were recruited from Central Hospital, Stella Obasanjo Hospital and University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City. The Bioclean II group (n=5) were placed on oral 10 ml twice daily Bioclean II for 8 months. Venous blood samples were collected from each individual in the two treatment groups at 0, 90 and 180 days intervals for analysis for viral load, CD4+T cells and sero-status. The body weights of the individuals were taken at the same time intervals. The mean viral load, CD4+T-cells count and body weights for the HAART Group were 299, 587.8 copies/ml – 199, 854.4 copies/ml; 123.2 cells/µl – 461.2 cells/µl and 44.6 kg – 48.6 kg while the Bioclean Group yielded 304161.8 copies/ml – 2785.0 cells/ml; 123.4 cells/µl – 752.6 cells/µl and 45.0 kg – 61.4 kg respectively. Though the sample size is small and therefore may not provide sufficient grounds for generalization without recourse to small sample theorem, the performance of Bioclean II in the three parameters investigated suggests that Bioclean II has a potential as an intervention tool in HIV/AIDS disease in the population investigated.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Benefits, Quality of Services and Challenges to the Nigerian National Health Insurance Scheme among Enrollees in a Tertiary Teaching Hospital in Southeast Nigeria

G. N. Ele, U. Ochu, V. U. Odili, R. C. Okechukwu, B. O. Ogbonna

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/28320

Objective: Access to quality healthcare has been a prerogative of the middle and high socioeconomic class leading to the introduction of health insurance in developing countries to share the burden, reduce cost, and step up health care financing and coverage. This study assessed the benefits, quality of services and challenges of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS).

Methods: The study was a cross-sectional descriptive survey of all eligible NHIS enrollees. The study was conducted between January 2014 and April 2016. Data was collected using self-administered structured questionnaire and analyzed for demographics, enrollees perceived benefits of NHIS, quality of services, challenges, and problems using descriptive statistics.

Results: Study showed that 91.1% of enrollees believed that the scheme is beneficial while 92.5% had confidence in the services and believed that it has reduced payment of their hospital bills. A total of 74.5% of the enrollees indicated positive response to quality and effective service under the scheme. The challenges borders on poor funding which does not allow for full coverage of all the essential medicines and entire family members for people with large families. Delay in collection of enrollees’ card was another major setback.

Conclusion: The National Health Insurance Scheme is beneficial to the enrollees and offers quality and effective services. However, poor funding limits its impact on the health benefits of the enrollees. The government needs to develop strategies to facilitate the operations of the scheme more efficient through improved funding and awareness campaign to improve coverage at all levels, boost the asset base, and improve services and efficiency.


Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Affecting Radioprotective Efficacy of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) Extract in Mice

Mrinalini Tiwari, Rajan Murugan, Rajkumar Tulsawani, Vikram Gota, Rajiv K. Sarin, P. Uma Devi, Rajnedra P. Tripathi, Thangaraj Parimelazhagan, Bilikere S. Dwarakanath, Paban K. Agrawala

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/28152

Background: Oscimum sanctum (Tulsi) is well reported for its medicinal values in Ayurveda. Although several chemical radioprotectors have shown excellent protection under in vitro conditions, lack of acceptable efficacy under in vivo conditions and/or undesirable toxicity has limited their applications in humans. Tulsi leave extract have shown significant normal tissue radioprotection in cell culture and animal models in preclinical studies.

Aim: This study intends developing a standardized extraction procedure so as to minimize variations in bioefficacy of extracts.

Methods: In the present study, a number of factors related to the extract preparation were found to influence the total yield and orientin (a potential bioactive component responsible for radioprotection) level  that included the season of raw material collection, geographical location of plant material, extraction method used.

Results: Although the plasma levels of orientin and radioprotective efficacy varied with the orientin levels in the extract, orientin does not appear to be the sole determinant of radioprotection afforded by the tulsi extract.

Conclusion: These results imply that careful extraction of plant material is a prerequisite for maintaining its bioefficacy and identifying at least one bioactive marker (like orientin here) may help in achieving this to a large extent.


Open Access Review Article

Development of Combined Genetic and Imaging Approaches for Differentiation of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma and Benign Melanocytic Nevi

S. Abdalla, N. Al-Aama

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/28336

The morbidity and mortality rate is reduced by premature and exact diagnosis of melanoma, which is the deadliest type of skin cancer. Timely identification of melanoma needs extremely complex and subjective test and laboratory samples. It is not insignificant even for experienced dermatologists to identify, so lot of concentration must be given. Finding the difference between melanoma and mole is also an issue in the accuracy of clinical diagnosis of melanoma. Especially, early diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma is very hard for experienced dermatologists. Even though a lot of advanced imaging techniques and clinical diagnostic algorithms such as dermoscopy and the ABCD rule of dermoscopy respectively are available, clinical diagnosis of melanoma becomes very challenging. The accuracy is an issue of distress (estimated to be about 75--85%) especially with oblique pigmented lesions. Quantitative and objective evaluation of the skin lesion is achieved by the above methods with respect to the subjective clinical assessment. An effective diagnosis can be achieved by reducing the viewer variability’s found in dermatologists' examinations. In order to improve some of existing methods and budding new techniques to ease accurate, fast and reliable diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma. In this paper different types diagnostic system of melanoma namely, preprocessing feature extraction, feature selection and classification is explained. The results of feature selection were optimized from advanced classes of classification techniques; namely, Two weighted k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifiers (k = 1, 30), a decision tree (DT), and the Random Forest (RF) algorithm are employed. Support Vector Machine has been very effective in computer-based melanoma diagnosis studies in the literature.