Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Bioactive Compounds in Latex of Croton bonplandianum (Baill.) Using GC-MS

Vivekanandadasan Vennila, Rajangam Udayakumar

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/26655

Background: Croton bonplandianum Baill. belongs to the family of Euphorbiaceae and commonly known as ‘Bantulsi’. Traditionally, the latex of this plant is used for cuts and wounds.

Objective: The present investigation was designed to determine the phytochemical constituents of latex of C. bonplandianum by GC-MS. In the present study, the mass spectrum of the compounds found in the ethanolic extract of latex was matched with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) library.

Place and Duration of Study: Post Graduate and Research Department of Biochemistry at Government Arts College (Autonomous), Kumbakonam and Centre for Advanced Research in Indian System of Medicine (CARISM), SASTRA University, Tirumalaisamudram, Thanjavur,  Tamilnadu, India, during the months between October to December, 2015.

Methodology: 10 ml of fresh latex was mixed with 10 ml of ethanol and kept at shaker for 3 hours. The sample was filtered and concentrated through nitrogen flushing to 1 ml. From this, 2 μl of prepared sample was injected into GC-MS instrument for phytochemical analysis.

Results: The GC-MS analysis of the ethanolic extract of latex of C. bonplandianum revealed that the presence of twenty three phytocompounds including the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds but not all of them is bioactive compounds. The major chemical constituents present in the latex are 2-C-methylmyoinositol (32.4), mequinol (0.74), 4-methylphenol (6.86), 1,2,3-benzenetriol (3.54), 3-methylquinoline, (0.44), n-hexadecanoic acid [palmitic acid] (5.36) and octadecanoic acid [stearic acid] (1.95).

Conclusion: Further study is needed to isolate, identify, characterize and elucidate the structure of bioactive compounds responsible for therapeutic values of latex of C. bonplandianum.


Open Access Original Research Article

Hydroalcoholic Extract of Alstonia scholaris Arrests Invasion of Plasmodium falciparum by Effective RBC Membrane Stabilization

Linz- Buoy George, Dhara Jani, Shivali Guleria, Urja Joshi, Hyacinth Highland

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/26751

Aim: Traditionally medicinal plants play a key role in malaria control. Several studies have demonstrated that alkaloids have excellent antiplasmodial potential. Alstonia scholaris is rich in alkaloid content; despite this fact its antimalarial potential has been less explored. Therefore, the main objective of our study was evaluation of the possible anti-plasmodial efficacy of hydro-alcoholic extract of Alstonia scholaris leaves, with specific emphasis on its role in stabilization of the RBC membrane.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Zoology, BMT and Human Genetics, Gujarat University, Gujarat, India, between December-2014 to May- 2016.

Methodology: In order to assess its acclaimed potentials, a hydro-alcoholic extract was prepared from leaves of Alstonia scholaris, and tested for its antiplasmodial activity, using specific assays for in vitro percentage inhibition of entry of parasites and erythrocyte membrane stabilization. In addition, anti-oxidant activity was estimated using DPPH assay.

Results: It was observed that the plant extract had significant antiplasmodial activity. The EC50 value of MRC 2 was 8.87 µg/ml and 34.27 µg/ml on RKL 9 with very good antioxidant activity.

Conclusion: This plant could be an effective antimalarial agent which could be used alone or in combination, to effectively control this dreaded parasite protozoan.


Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo Antiplasmodial Activity of Raw Ethanolic Seed Extract of Tetracarpidium conophorum in Swiss Albino Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei

E. O. Dada, O. O. Ogundolie

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/26789

Study was carried out to determine the antiplasmodial activity of raw ethanolic seed extract of Tetracarpidium conophorum, in swiss albino mice infected with Plasmodium berghei (NK65). Standard methods were employed to determine the acute toxicity test, antiplasmodial activity and phytochemical screening of the seed extract. The experimental mice were acclimatized for seven days before the commencement of treatment. The mice were treated for four consecutive days with increasing dosages (200, 400, 600 mg/kg body weight) of seed extracts and a standard antimalarial drug (chloroquine as positive control) at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight. Temperatures and body weights of mice were respectively measured each day. Qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phytate, oxalate, flavonoid, tannins, saponins, steroids, phenol, and terpenoids while quantitative screening revealed the presence of phytate (28.8 mg/g), oxalate (4.27 mg/100 g), tannins (0.59 mg/100 g), phenols (0.40 mg/100 g), alkaloids (0.31 mg/100 g) and flavonoids (0.21 mg/100 g) as secondary metabolites. The seed extract did not reveal any toxicity at all dosage levels used. The ethanolic seed extract revealed a dose-dependent activity in the chemosuppression of Plasmodium berghei by 2.77%, 30.55% and 47.22% at doses of 200, 400, 600 mg/kg body weight respectively while chloroquine at 5 mg/kg body weight produced 55.5% chemosuppression. Parasitemia in all the infected and treated experimental mice groups was significantly low (P<0.05) compared with the infected but untreated mice. The seed extract revealed a significant increase (P<0.05) in temperature and decrease in body weight of the infected mice. The study revealed that Tetracarpidium conophorum seed extract could be a future antiplasmodial herbal candidate for the treatment of malaria parasite.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anxiolytic Effect of Aqueous Root Extract of Citrus aurantium in Wistar Albino Rats

Muhammad Bawa Yusuf, Balaraba Bello, I. J. Jaafaru

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/27022

Anxiety is a very common mental disorder among neurological disorders. Citrus aurantium decoction has been used to treat anxiety- like behaviour, by traditional medicine practitioners in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous root extract of C. aurantium AECA (50-200 mg/kg, p.o.), diazepam (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.), and normal saline 10 ml/kg on anxiety-like behaviour, spontaneous alternation behaviour. Locomotor and exploratory activity were evaluated in rats on hole-board, elevated plus maze (EPM), elevated zero maze (EZM), Y-maze, and open field apparatus, respectively. The results showed that AECA significantly (p< 0.05-0.001) and increased time spent on hole-board, open arm of elevated plus maze, EPM and open arm of elevated zero maze, EZM. The administration of AECA produced dose-dependent and significant (p< 0.05-0.001) increase in spontaneous alternation behaviour in rats. Locomotor and exploratory behaviour was significantly (p< 0.05-0.001) increased in the open field apparatus.

The present results provide evidence for anxiolytic effects of the AECA, hence may be developed as a safe alternative for continuous use in the therapeutic management of neurological disorders characterized by anxiety and amnesia.


Open Access Original Research Article

Adverse Haematological Changes in Plasmodium Infected Mice Following Treatment with Azadirachta indica (Neem) Leaf Extract

Itemobong S. Ekaidem, Henry D. Akpan

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/28089

Background: Azadirachta indica (neem) is an effective natural remedy for malaria treatment in some tropical regions of Africa. This study investigated the impact of Azadirachta indica leaf-extract on some haematological indices of Plasmodium berghei-berghei infected mice.

Materals and Methods: Twenty-five (25) mice weighing between 19 g and 31 g were randomly selected into five (5) groups of 5 animals per group. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were inoculated on day 0, intraperitonealy about 1% (4.5x104) Plasmodium berghei berghei parasitized red blood cells. Groups 1 and 2 were treated with 50 mg/kg and 75 mg/kg of the extract respectively by oral gavage, while group 3 animals were given normal saline. Groups 4 and 5 were not infected but group 4 was treated with 75 mg/kg of the extract and 5 served as normal control mice. Treatment lasted for 14 days. Whole blood was obtained for haematological analysis using Sysmsec® Automated Haematology Analyzer KX-21N.

Results: The result showed significant reduction in red blood cell count (RBC: p = 0.000), packed cell volume (PCV: p = 0.000) and haemoglobin concentration (HB: p = 0.000) of P. berghei berghei infected mice following A. indica leaf-extract administration. The mean cell haemoglobin (MCH: p = 0.006) and mean cell volume (MCV: p = 0.024) were significantly higher when compared to uninfected and untreated control mice. The red cell indices (RBC count, PCV and HB) animals that were infected without extract treatment were significantly higher than those of infected mice that received the extract. Extract treatment to uninfected mice, however, did not show any significant change in these parameters when compared with untreated control animals. Total white blood cell count (WBC: p = 0.005), neutrophils (p = 0.024) and lymphocytes (p = 0.001) were significantly higher in infected treated mice than those without extract treatment. Administration of extract to uninfected mice did not cause any significant change in total white blood cell counts and the differential counts. However, eosinophil (p = 0.214) and platelet (p = 0.152) counts of infected mice receiving extract treatment were not significantly different from those of uninfected control. Conclusion: We therefore conclude that treatment of malaria with extract of A. indica, though may be effective as anti-malaria and could prevent malaria associated platelet changes, may contribute to malaria associated anaemia. Care should, therefore, be taken to follow up the extract treatment with blood building agents.