Open Access Case Study

Catastrophic Anti-phospholipid Syndrome Presenting with Symmetrical Peripheral Gangrene

Ujala Zubair, Ahmad Faraz, Zarafshan Zubair

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/26577

Introduction: Anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) is an acquired auto-immune thrombophilia and is very rare in children presenting with skin manifestations.

Case Report: A case of 12 years old female who presented to the Emergency with discoloration of arms and legs and later developed gangrene which then auto-amputated. Anti-cardiolipin antibodies were found to be positive and skin biopsy findings were consistent with APS. She was diagnosed with catastrophic anti-phospholipid syndrome. Anti- ds antibodies were found to be negative.

Conclusion: Criteria for diagnosing APS in children should be developed as the adult APS diagnostic criteria doesn’t seem to apply on peadiatric patients. Prior studies too apply emphasis on this fact.


Open Access Short Research Article

A Study of the Distribution of Illegal Sales Outlets of Tobacco Products to Minors in Southern Taiwan

Min- Li Chen, Chiu- Yueh Chen, Li- Na Chou

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/26638

Introduction: Statistics revealed that the percentage of convenience stores, supermarkets, betel nut stalls, and grocery shops that illegally sold tobacco products to minors is high in Taiwan. It is critical to prevent tobacco hazards to minors. The aim of the study is to evaluate the distribution of illegal sales outlets of tobacco products in minors among retailers in southern Taiwan.

Methodology: A cross-sectional design was used in this study. The survey testers were university students older than 18 years and attired in senior high school uniforms to disguise themselves as senior high school students. They were assigned to test whether tobacco retailers confirmed customers’ ages before selling tobacco products. The survey investigations were conducted from March 2015 to August 2015.

Results: The investigation covered 327 retailers, comprising 98 convenience stores, 115 grocery shops, and 114 betel nut stalls. The results revealed that among the 327 retailers, 239 (73.0%) failed to confirm that the buyer was at least 18 years of age before allowing the purchase. Age confirmation before tobacco sale was frequent in urban areas compared with coastal regions and mountain regions (F = 8.372, P < .01).

Conclusion: This study proposes establishing self-management strategies for compliant and noncompliant retailers to prevent illegal sale of tobacco products to minors.


Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Anti-microbial Study of Seventy Percent Methanol Leaf Extract of Terminalia microptera against Selected Pathogenic Bacteria

Daniel Augustine Innalegwu, Ewansiha Joel Uyi, Amuda Oladuni Amuda, Nathaniel Vivian

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/27370

The phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of Terminalia microptera leaf methanol (70%) crude extract was determined against some selected pathogenic microorganisms using the qualitative phytochemical, tube dilution and agar well diffusion methods respectively. The results of the phytochemical analysis shows that all the phytochemicals analysed for were present; these include alkaloid, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinons, sterols, phlobatanins and terpenes. All organisms screened were found to be sensitive to the extract at all the concentrations. Klebsiella pneumoniae was more susceptible to the extract with mean zones of inhibitions of 24.33±0.88, 29.33±0.33 and 33.33±0.88 for 20, 30 and 40 mg/ml respectively followed closely by Streptococcus pyogenese and Salmonella typhi with mean zones of inhibitions of 17.67±0.88, 25.00±0.58 & 28.67±0.88 and 17.00±0.58, 18.33±0.67 & 21.33±0.67 respectively while Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus mutans sensitivity were seen to be on the lower side with mean zones of inhibitions of 15.67±0.33, 18.67±0.88 and 17.33±0.67 respectively at 40 mg/ml. In the same vein, Klebsiella pneumoniae had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration of 1.25 mg/ml and minimum bactericidal concentration of 10 mg/ml i.e, it is more susceptible to the plant extract while Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus mutans, Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi C were more resistant to the extract with MIC of 10 mg/ml. The result of this study shows that extracts from Terminalia microptera had antimicrobial activity against the test organisms and therefore can be used to develop drugs that can be used to treat infections caused by these organisms.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial and Potential Toxicological Evaluation of Leaf Extracts of Guiera senegalensis against Gram Negative Bacteria

T. B. Saidu, M. Galadima, A. A. Jigam, E. M. Abalaka

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/25815

Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial and potential toxicity effects of leaves extract of Guira senegalensis.

Methods: The plant material was extracted with methanol and aqueous solvents using sohxlet extractor and assayed for qualitative/quantitative phytochemicals. The extracts were bioassayed against clinical isolates of selected gram negative bacterial (Echerichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiela pneumoniae and Pseudomona aeruginosa). Tetracycline and chloramphenicol were used as positive standard drugs. Acute toxicity studies were conducted by administering different doses (100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200 mg/kg) of the extract to eight groups (4 animals per group). A ten weeks sub acute toxicity investigation was also conducted in rats.

Results: Analysis showed that the extracts contain alkaloids, phenols, tannins, steroids and saponins. Estimation of the phytochemicals revealed high concentration between 87.3±0.5 g/ml and 123.3±0.34 g/ml of phenols, while saponins, flavonids, tannins and alkaloids were present in less amounts and at varied concentrations. The aqueous extract shows appreciable antibacterial activity when tested at 40 mg/ml concentration against all isolates with diameters zone of inhibitions ranging 14.40±1.60 mm to 15.60±0.51 mm. Tetracycline and chloramphenicol demonstrated higher inhibitory zones than the plant extract. Low MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) and MBC (Minimum Bactericidal Concentration) values were observed for E. coli, K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa except S. typhi. The selected safe dose was 800 mg/kg and the LD50 value was estimated to be 894.43 mg/kg. Haematological, and biochemical analysis revealed no toxic effects after weeks 1 and 5 of treatment. However, cumulative toxic effects were manifested after week 10 of treatment. The result of liver and kidney histopathology revealed mild necrosis of the hepatocytes and gross nephrotoxicity.

Conclusion: Although the leaf extracts of G. senegalensis appeared to be relatively safe, potential hepatic and renal toxicity may occur with prolonged usage.


Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and In-vitro Evaluation of Ileo-Colonic Targeted Tablet of Flurbiprofen Using Natural and Semi Synthetic Polymers for Ulcerative Colitis

Yasir Mehmood, Lubna Shakir, Shahzad Asghar, Ayesha Tariq, Rana Khalid Mehmood, Hammad Yousaf

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/26969

In present research work, we have developed ileo-colonic targeted matrix tablets of flurbiprofen for chronotherapeutic treatment of ulcerative colitis. Direct compression technique was used to formulate matrix tablets of flurbiprofen using microsomal enzyme dependent and pH-sensitive polymers. FTIR and DSC studies were conducted to access the compatibility for flurbiprofen, polymers and physical mixtures. In this research we have used two types of polymer one is synthetic and other is natural, and both polymers have achieving colon targeted drug A physicochemical study was evaluated of all formulated batches. Estimation of drug content, in vitro release of drug and stability studies was also performed. No interaction was observed between drug and the polymers in FTIR and DSC studies. However when the formulated matrix tablets were subject to physicochemical properties then all the readings were within limits. The percentage of flurbiprofen in the optimized formulation C5 was found to be 98±0.10%. According to the guide-lines of International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use the formulation was found to be stable. Six formulations were prepared and evaluate. For the protection of drug from the environment of the stomach pH dependent polymers Eudragit S100 was used for its enteric coating.