Open Access Case Report

Acute Phosphate Nephropathy Successfully Treated with Hemodialysis: A Case Report and Literature Review

Yu-Ming Chang, Chih-Chung Shiao, Yuen-Hua Lei, Ching-Hua Huang, Yu-Jing Wu

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/26989

Acute phosphate nephropathy is a kind of acute kidney injury resulted from oral sodium phosphate solutions which are hyperosmotic purgatives used for bowel cleansing before colonoscopy, contains a large amount of phosphorus and causes calcium phosphate crystals precipitation in the renal tubule. Acute phosphate nephropathy seems less reversible than other forms of acute tubulopathy and might predispose patients to chronic kidney disease. We reported a 53-year-old woman without underlying kidney disease developed acute phosphate nephropathy with a seizure after taking oral sodium phosphate solutions 45 ml per day for 4 days. A session of 4-hour hemodialysis was undertaken emergently for the symptomatic hypocalcemia and severe hyperphosphatemia, resulted in a prompt resolution of seizure. Her serum calcium and phosphate level, as well as a renal function also returned to normal ranges after supportive management for days. This case reminds physicians of risk factors and complications of acute phosphate nephropathy. Early hemodialysis may play a role in preventing untoward consequences.


Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of the Ameliorative Effects of Skimmed Milk and Tuna Fish in the Dietary Management of Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Induced Osteoporotic Female Wistar Rats

H. K. Okafor, A. I. Odugbemi, S. E. Omogo

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/24382

Objective: This investigation was carried out to compare the moderating effects of skimmed milk and whole dried Tuna fish in osteoporotic female rats.

Methods: Sixty female albino Wistar rats were divided into two main groups. The first group (ten rats) fed basal diet and was maintained as negative control group. The second main group (fifty rats) was injected with 2 mg dexamethasone sodium phosphate daily (a synthetic corticosteroid) for 5 weeks after which the second main group was divided into five groups. Group 1 osteoporotic group fed basal diet, while groups from 2 to 5 osteoporotic rats fed basal diet supplemented with 5% and 10% skimmed milk, 5% and 10% Tuna fish powder respectively.

Results: The results indicated that the injection with cortisone caused osteoporosis of rats. Induced osteoporosis caused decreases in body weight gain (BWG), serum osteocalcin, Estradiol (E2), calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) concentration in serum and femur bone, Bone mineral density (BMD), Bone mineral concentration (BMC) and increases in weight of liver and Parathyroid hormone (PTH) compared to negative control group (healthy rat). However, supplementation diet of osteoporotic rat with 5% and 10% skimmed milk and 5% and 10% dried whole dried Tuna fish respectively led to increases in body weight gain, serum osteocalcin, E2, Ca, P in serum and femur, BMD, BMC and decreases in weight of liver and PTH. Positive control group (osteoporotic rats) resulted to changes in the histological structure of bone compared to negative control group. The best results were observed in rats fed diet supplemented with 10% skimmed milk.

Conclusion: Administration of diet supplemented with 10% skimmed milk is more effective in the dietary management of dexamethasone induced osteoporosis in female rats than when supplemented with 5% or 10% powdered Tuna fish as a supplemental source of calcium.


Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-fertility Effects of Ethanol Extract of Salacia lehmbachii Root Bark in Albino Rats

Grace A. Essiet, Augustine D. Essien, Francis V. Udoh, Akanimo Essiet

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/26576

Aim: With the reported impairment of male fertility by herbal remedies in the literature, ethanol extract of the root bark of Salacia lehmbachii, a commonly used remedy by locals for febrile illnesses, was studied to evaluate its effect on the fertilization potential of sperm cells in rats.

Methodology: Twenty four sexually mature male rats weighing 220-250 g and 24 virgin female rats weighing 150-180 g were used for this study. The male rats were randomly assigned 4 groups (n=6), labeled Control, A, B and C. Control rats received 2 mL of distilled water (vehicle) orally. Groups A, B and C received 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight of ethanol extract of Salacia lehmbachii root bark (ESLR) respectively. Preparation of extract was by Soxhlet extraction of petroleum ether defatted plant residue using ethanol. Administration to the rats was orally using a cannula for 56 days.  Natural ovulation was induced in the female rats after which they were paired one to one with the treated male rats and allowed overnight for mating. Vaginal smears from the female rats were examined for sperm cells the next morning as evidence of successful mating. Fertility indices were computed for the male rats. The rats were weighed, anaesthetized and the testes and left cauda epididymis harvested. Testicular weights and lengths were taken. Sperm from the left cauda epididymis was analyzed with an automated semen analyzer for counts while morphological characteristics were assessed with a microscope.

Results: There was a significant (P<.05) dose dependent decrease in testicular weights, sperm indices and fertilizing potential in treated rats. More primary and secondary sperm abnormalities were seen in treated rats and testicular cyto-architecture was altered at high doses.

Conclusion: At the doses used in this study, ESLR decreases fertility in male rats.


Open Access Original Research Article

Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) Ownership and Utilization among Selected Dwellers of Rural Communities in Rivers State, Nigeria

B. Njoku, N. Deebii, S. O. Amadi, U. Inwang

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/23255

Background of Study: The evidence for the efficacy of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) in preventing malaria and its consequences among its users is strong especially in rural areas.

Aim/Objective: This was a cross sectional study designed to assess the level of ownership and utilization of insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs) among residents of selected rural Communities in Rivers State, South-South, Nigeria.

Methodology: Structured pre – tested questionnaires were administered to 250 volunteer male and female dwellers of the communities, between the ages of 17 to 40 years, to capture information on ownership and utilization of ITNs. Social demographic characteristics of respondents, ownership, consistent use of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and reason behind ownership were assessed. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis.

Results: The study revealed that 56.4% of the studied population owned ITNs, out of which 33.6% was provided by the government, 17.2% was provided by NGOs while 5.6% was provided by others. The highest rate of utilization 16.4% fell between the age ranges of 31–40. Following the result of this study, 37.6% utilization of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) was observed. The overall ITN utilization rate among rural dwellers was 30.4% for females and 7.2% for males. Reasons for non ITNs utilization includes- chemical irritation (35.5%); heat (51.1%); laziness (7.8%) while no reason (5.7%) was given for non ITNs utilization.

Conclusion: It is concluded that the rate of possession and utilization of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) among rural dwellers as found in this study were low. Public health education needs to be intensified to create more awareness and increase ownership and utilization while making ITNs accessible.


Open Access Review Article

Diagnostics: Conventional Versus Modern Methods

Tang Wai Bunn, Archana Singh Sikarwar

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/25959

There are many research have been done on the development of rapid and effective diagnostic methods. New modern diagnostic test is widely accepted because of the quick and effective test results, with in a short time duration which will help physicians to correctly diagnose the disease for treatment purposes, however cost of the test will increase because of specific equipment, expensive reagents and qualified staff to run the test. Some pathology labs still uses traditional methods because of cost effectiveness. The objective of an article is to compare conventional and modern diagnostic test to understand the demand of the community for the successful acceptance of modern diagnostic methods. Most considerable factors to decide suitable diagnostic methods are commonly cost effectiveness, specificity, sensitivity as well as the availability of qualified staffs. Currently, nucleic acid manipulation and testing are common test used in the scientific community. Promising approach involves advances in nanotechnology field that provide new directions to simplify assay procedures to make it user-friendly and enhance the detection sensitivity of the assay.