Open Access Original Research Article

Histochemical Evaluation of Some of the Effects of Annona muricata Leaf Extract on Dermatophytosis in Wistar Rats: A Pilot Study

Ojuolape Samsudeen Gbenga, Muhammed Abdurrasheed Ola, Ajayi Ayooye Samuel, Afodun Moyosore Adam

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/26247

Aims: This study was carried out to investigate the antifungal activity of the aqueous leaf extract of Annona muricata (A. muricata), and to analyze its effects on growth and morphology of Trichonphyton rubrum (T. rubrum) and Epidermophyton flocossum (E. flocossum) strains respectively.

Study Design: The gross observation, histological and histochemical analysis were studied for this research work.

Methodology: Twenty one (21) animals were divided into seven (7) groups, three (3) animals each were allocated to group A-G. Group A was the control, not infected and not treated (ACNINT); group B was T. rubrum-infected, and later treated with A. muricata (BTRIT); group C was E. flocossum-infected, and  later treated with A. muricata (CEFIT); group D was T. rubrum-infected without treatment (DTRIWT); group E was E. flocossum-infected without treatment (EFIWT); group F was not infected but treated with A. muricata (FNIT) and group G was T. rubrum-infected with concurrent A. muricata treatment (GTRICT). 2 ml of washed fungal organisms were spilled on shaved, cleaned and disinfected skin of the Wistar rats separately. The dermatophytes were allowed to incubate with noticeable changes, a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight of aqueous leaf extract of A. muricata were used in the treatment. Animals were sacrificed under chloroform anaesthesia in two batches; post infections (12 days) and treatment (2 weeks). Skin tissues were harvested for both histological and quantitative histochemical analysis.

Results: The histochemical study of melanoaldehyde (MDA), superioxide dismutase (SOD) and total protein (T.P) was done with tissue homogenates, there was an increase in SOD level in BTRIT & CEFIT groups with about 9.21% compared to DTRIWT & EFIWT. Also, the T.P level of BTRIT & CEFIT groups was 4.4% higher compare to DTRIWT & EFIWT. The same rise in level of MDA was recorded in infected and later treated group of BTRIT, but otherwise in CEFIT.

Conclusion: The infected and later treated group had an improved histological integrity compared to infected without treatment. It can be concluded from this study that the aqueous leaf extract of Annona muricata has some antifungal effects, though reported to be statistically insignificant in this investigation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Duct Tape with Adhesive Cyanoacrylate versus Cryotherapy in the Treatment of Palmoplantar Warts

Mohammed Saleh Al-Dhubaibi

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/26367

Background: Warts are common benign skin growths that appear when a virus infects the top layer of the skin. Common therapies for warts include destruction (electrodesiccation, cryotherapy, salicylic acid, laser, etc.), topical immunotherapy and occlusion.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of duct tape occlusion therapy with adhesive cyanoacrylate versus cryotherapy for the treatment of warts.

Design: Randomized trial versus comparative cohort.    

Methods: Sixty immunocompetent participants with 1-3 warts measuring 3 to 15 mm were enrolled between September 15, 2014, and February 15, 2016. Thirty participants were treated with duct tape, plus adhesive cyanoacrylate (group A), and 30 participants were treated with cryotherapy (group B).

Results: After two months, warts resolved completely, more in participants treated with duct tape, plus adhesive cyanoacrylate (80%) than in participants treated with cryotherapy (60%).

Conclusion: There was statistically significant difference between duct tape with adhesive cyanoacrylate and cryotherapy for the treatment of palmoplantar warts.


Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo Evaluation of Analgesic Activities of Phyllanthus niruri Leaf Methanol Extract in Experimental Animal Models

A. O. Sijuade

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/26826

Introduction: Phyllanthus niruri is a highly valued plant, commonly distributed in many countries of the tropics and subtropics. It has a wide range of uses as traditional medicine in many countries. However, this study was designed to evaluate the analgesic activity of the methanol extract of Phyllanthus niruri leaves in animal models.

Methods: The Methanol extract of Phyllanthus niruri (PN) leaves was evaluated for analgesic action using standard hot plate test in mice and analgesy meter method in rats. The activities of the extract administered orally at different doses 300, 600, 750 mg/kg body weight (b.w) were evaluated and compared with standard drug and control group treated with normal saline. 

Results: The dose 600 and 750 mg/kg b.w. of PN leaf extract exhibited significant (p< 0.05) analgesic effect in both hot plate and analgesy meter pressure-induced method. The activity showed a dose dependent profile.

Conclusion: This study showed that Phyllanthus niruri has strong potential analgesic activity. This supports its use as a potent analgesic drug in herbal medicine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Time-Kill Effect of Crude Extracts of Garcinia kola Seeds on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from the Anterior Nares of Healthcare Workers at a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria

C. C. Egwuatu, T. O. Egwuatu, A. A. Iwuafor, C. N. Akujobi, A. U. Nnachi, I. N. Aghanya, F. T. Ogunsola, O. O. Oduyebo

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/27005

Aims: This study investigated the time-kill effects of crude methanol and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola (Bitter kola) against isolates of Staphylococcus aureus obtained from the anterior nares of healthcare workers in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria.

Study Design: This was a cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, Nigeria between June 2013 and January 2014.

Methodology: Nasal swab samples were aseptically collected from two hundred and fifty (250) health workers using sterile swab sticks and analyzed using standard microbiological techniques. The isolates were identified using standard techniques and subjected to susceptibility testing that categorized them into oxacillin-resistant, β-lactamase producing and oxacillin-sensitive strains. The isolates were further subjected to agar well dilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and time-kill assays of the extracts.

Results: The overall carriage rate of 35.6% (89 of 250) was observed and out of the 89 Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered, 26 were from laboratory workers and 16 from those in labour ward. Also, 34 (38.2%) of the isolates were oxacillin-resistant (MRSA), 32 (36%) were oxacillin-sensitive (MSSA) while the remaining 23 (25.8%) were β-lactamase producers. The overall MRSA presence among the healthcare workers was 13.6%. Both the methanol and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds showed intense activity with complete inhibition of most strains at 25 μg/ml (including all β-lactamase strains). However, thirty-two out of the thirty-four of the oxacillin-resistant (MRSA) strains showed sensitivity to the extracts at higher minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 50 μg/ml while most strains that were oxacillin-sensitive (including S. aureus ATCC 25923) were sensitive at lower MIC of 12.5 μg/ml. At 200 μg/ml of the extracts, all isolates under study were killed within 4 minutes whereas 100 μg/ml killed (oxacillin-sensitive and β-lactamase producers) within 10 minutes and MRSA within 30 minutes.

Conclusion: Extracts of Garcinia kola seeds possessed good antibacterial activity against isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, using this plant extract as an ointment for nasal decolonization will go a long way in reducing the transmission of staphylococcal infections from health workers to patients. The study also reveals that nasal decolonization using these extracts greatly depend on concentration and contact time. Abiding by standard infection control methods and judicious use of antibiotics could greatly reduce transmission and antimicrobial resistance respectively among health workers.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Susceptibility of Heavy Metals Tolerant Bacteria Isolated from NILEST Tannery Effluent

J. O. Oko, M. Umar, D. E. Akafyi, M. Abdullahi

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/26580

Background: The emergence of multiple antibiotics resistance among bacterial population poses a potential threat to human health. The co-existence of metal/antibiotic resistance in bacterial strains suggests the role of heavy metals as a factor which can also contribute to drug resistance phenomenon since heavy metal pollution results in selective pressure that leads to the development of multiple drug resistance among bacterial populations probably through horizontal gene transfer.

Aim: This study was aimed to isolate, identify, and determine the antibiogram profile of heavy metals tolerant bacteria from the tannery effluent at Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology (NILEST), Zaria, using standard microbiological methods.

Place of Study: Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology (NILEST), Zaria, Kaduna-Nigeria.

Methodology: Tannery effluent was cultured on heavy metals incorporated nutrient agar. The resultant isolates were purified by sub-culturing on fresh heavy metals incorporated nutrient agar and the antibiogram profile was determined using agar diffusion method.

Results: The bacteria isolated include Bacillus cereus (18.75%), Escherichia coli (12.50%), Klebsiella aerogenes (18.75%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.25%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.50%), Proteus mirabilis (6.25%), and Staphylococcus aureus (25.00%) with Staphylococcus aureus being the most prevalent. In this study, heavy metals tolerant bacteria isolated from the tannery effluent were multidrug resistant as each of the isolates was able to resist the activity of one or more of the antibiotics across the three classes of antibiotics studied. Gentamicin was highly resisted followed by ampicillin and amoxicillin. Kanamycin and Nalidixic acid were more effective followed by Ciprofloxacin and Streptomycin. The β-lactams/penicillins were generally not very effective as compared to the glycopeptides and the quinolones. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were highly resistant to six (6) out of the nine (9) antibiotics tested with Escherichia coli showing 100% resistance to ampicillin and amoxicillin. However, Bacillus cereus was moderately resistant to seven (7) out of the nine (9) antibiotics tested but highly resistant to gentamicin. Ampicillin and cefixime showed no activity against Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae. However, Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella aerogenes were 100% resistant to gentamicin. Kanamycin was inactive against Klebsiella pneumoniae. The Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) indices of all isolates were greater than 0.2.

Conclusions: The recovery of heavy metals tolerant bacteria from the tannery effluent is an indication that the effluent is laden with heavy metals. The high antibiotic resistance profile of the isolates in this study is an indication of the correlation between heavy metals tolerance and antibiotic resistance. The identified heavy metals tolerant bacterial strains could be useful for bio-remediation of heavy metals contaminated wastewaters and soil environments even though they are potential threat to successful chemotherapy if incriminated in infections.