Open Access Minireview Article

Essential Drugs Revolving Fund Scheme in Nigeria; from the Edge of a Precipice towards Sustainability

Brian O. Ogbonna, Charles N. Nwako

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/25950

Efficient and effective preventive and curative health care relies predominantly on the availability of essential drugs. Essential drug supply in most African countries is characterized by”. The cycle of terror”, which lead to decapitalization and lack of sustainability of essential drugs revolving fund (DRF) system. This study described the DRF situation in Nigeria and ways to promote better management and utilization of the scheme. Electronic search of published studies and documents obtained from Google scholar, and PubMed was carried out using the key words singly and in combination. The eligibility criteria was used for selection. Studies published in English language and conducted in Nigeria, and those with defined inclusion criteria and ethical approvals were used. The study suggested that poor economic, political, structural, management and human factors, contribute greatly to DRF decapitalization in most government hospitals in Nigeria.


Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Effects of Moringa oleifera Oil, Anacardium occidentale Oil and Vitamin C and E on the Reticular Fibres of Cadmium- Induced Liver Damage in Wistar Rats

O. D. Omotoso, S. A. Adelakun, U. A. Yusuf, O. O. Adeleye, O. O. Adeyinka

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/24239

Background: Cadmium is one of the most toxic pollutants in the environment. This study aims at assessment of the effects of Moringa oleifera oil, Anacardium occidentale oil and vitamin C and E on the reticular fibres of cadmium- induced liver damage in wistar rats.

Methods: Thirty-five (35) wistar rats (80-180 g) were randomly selected and divided into seven groups of five rats each after acclimatization for two week. Group A served as control group received phosphate buffer, Group B received Cadmium only (3.5 mg/kg body weight). Group C received Vitamin C and Vitamin E, Group D received Vitamin C and Vitamin E and Cadmium. Group E received Cadmium and Moringa oleifera oil, Group F received Cadmium and Cashew nut oil and Group G received Cadmium (3.5 mg/kg body weight) and Moringa oleifera oil and Anacardium occidentale nut oil.

Results: Microscopic examination revealed normal histo- architecture of the liver, the portal vein and the reticular fibres were seen clearly and there was orderly arrangement of the reticular fibres in group A and in treatment groups B, C, D, E, F and G there was enlargement of the portal vein, distortion of reticular fibres and sinusoidal and restoration of the reticular fibres.

Conclusion: This therefore suggests that Moringa oleifera oil and Anacardium occidentale nut oil have ameliorative effects that led to the regeneration of the damaged and distorted reticular fibres.


Open Access Original Research Article

Contextual Analysis and Perceptions of Health Workers on Migration: Perspective from Kenyatta National Hospital Staff, Nairobi Kenya

Brendah Obura, Solomon Cheboi, George Ochieng Otieno, John Paul Oyore, John G. Kariuki

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/25748

Aims: Migration of health workers constitutes a significant barrier to expanding health interventions. In Kenya, internal migration of workers, from rural to urban areas, is just as serious as international migration. Healthcare professionals are migrating vertical and horizontal within the country while others are emigrating internationally. Whereas there is extensive literature on immigration little reports indicate in-country migration. The aim was establish the determinants of migration in human resource for health.

Study Design: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. The study population was human resource for health working in the hospital.

Study Area and Duration: This research was undertaken at Kenyatta National Hospital between April and May, 2013.

Methodology: Qualitative and quantitative data was collected for triangulation purposes. Stratified random sampling was applied. Probability proportionate to size sampling was used at each stratum Manifest content analysis was used for qualitative data while quantitative data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20 at alpha of value (<0.05).

Results: The study demonstrated that a few employees intend to migrate 132 (37.0%) to work elsewhere. Years of service were a significant predictor for migration. For example, those who had worked for less than five years were 29.6% less likely to migrate compared to those who had worked for over 15 years (AOR 0.296). Support staff and medical officers are willing migrants than clinical officers, health records and radiographers. The desire to stay or move is underpinned by several dynamic drivers. Better terms of services, improved working conditions and training opportunities are synonymous with migration. Passion, job security, experience and growth/research are descriptive retention factors.

Conclusion: Human Resource for Health migration continuum in Kenyatta National Hospital is founded on several elements. The occupational skill mix is sensitive to dynamics of individual, social and institutional motivational factors relative to migration.


Open Access Original Research Article

Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases among Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Clinical Specimens of a Tertiary Hospital in 2014

Maefael Dianne M. Garcia, Ina Loiuse P. Norre, Amel Myrnel N. Gicana, Rogelio Rr Tariman, Kristine B. Rigby

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/24668

Extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae have become widespread among hospitals and even in the community. Such phenomenon poses a therapeutic dilemma against certain antimicrobial drugs that limit therapeutic options. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae in a tertiary hospital in Bacolod City and their antibiotic resistance profile for the year 2014. Out of 662 isolates, 125 (18.89%) were found to be ESBL producing and were frequently seen in Escherichia coli (4.96%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (4.08%) and Enterobacter aerogenes (3.36%). Urine was found to be the most common specimen to contain this type of bacteria (7.70%), followed by wounds and abscess (5.14%), and sputum (3.63%). These isolates were also found to be least resistant to amikacin with 10.5% followed by imipenem and meropenem with 17.1% and 15.4% respectively. Furthermore, there was no significant difference with regard to sex, but with significant difference in terms of age.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidants and Antimicrobial- Activities of Methanol Leaf Extract of Senna occidentalis

Ndarubu A. Tsado, Bashir Lawal, Gwadabe N. Kontagora, Balarabe M. Muhammad, Makama A. Yahaya, Jiya A. Gboke, Umar A. Muhammad, Muhammad K. Hassan

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/25655

Background: Oxidative stress and infectious disease have always been considered as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. Free radicals damage other molecules by extracting electrons from them in order to attain stability. The side effects associated with commonly used conventional antioxidants drugs have necessitated the search for natural antioxidants from plants extracts.

Objective: The antioxidants and antimicrobial activities of methanol leaf extract of S. occidentalis obtained from North Central, Nigeria were evaluated against some pathogenic microorganism.

Methods: The antioxidants activities were conducted using DPPH radical scavenging assay. The antibacterial activities were screened against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudimonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi using agar well diffusion method at various concentrations (80-360 mg/ml). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using serial dilution method while minimum bacterialcidal concentration (MBC) by plating various dilution of extract.

Results: The extract show significant antibacterial activities with MIC in the range of 160 mg/ml- 280 mg/ml and MBC in range of 160 mg/ml – 320 mg/ml. The most sensitive organisms were S. aureus and P. aeruginosa while K. pneumonia show some degree of resistances compared to other organisms tested. However, the organisms were not sensitive to the extract at the dose of 80 and 120 mg/ml. The extracts and the standard antioxidant (Vitamin E) promoted an inhibition of DPPH radical with IC50 value of the extract (263.53±3.24 mg/mL) significantly (p < 0.05) higher than 83.63±2.78 mg/mL obtained for standard drug.

Conclusion: Methanol leaf extract of S. occidentalis contains some useful potential antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds that could serve as candidate for the development of drug for therapeutic purposes.