The study investigated the antibacterial activity of Jatropha curcas using aqueous, methanol and ethanolic extracts that were obtained from the leaf against growth inhibition of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus spp, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, oxalates and cyanogenic glycosides were the phytochemicals present. All test microorganisms were significantly inhibited by the leaf extracts but the presence of oxalates and cyanogenic glycosides in the leaf could present potential toxicity and therefore reduces the application of this plant to topical but not systemic use. Clearly, additional pharmacology and safety studies are warranted to investigate clinical potential of Jatropha curcas as a topical antibiotic for use against susceptible pathogens.
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by sustained hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. It accounts for about 3% of all deaths globally and affects all glucose utilizing tissue leading to severe complications. One third of diabetes patients eventually develops renal complications and is the major cause of end stage renal disease the pathogenesis of which has been associated to oxidative stress. An alternative approach in the management of diabetes has focused on the role of herbs. In this study, Vernonia amygdalina a tropical savanna herb was studied for its potent antioxidant property and its ameliorative effect on diabetic renal complication. 40 adult male wistar rats were divided into eight groups (n=5) A-H. Fresh Vernonia amygdalina leaves were extracted and fractionated using four solvents of varying polarity. The extracts were further concentrated and reconstituted and was administered to the animals. Group A were used as control, groups B-H were induced diabetes with a single intravenous injection of 60 mg/kg B.W. streptozotocin. Group B were induced with diabetes but left untreated, group C received metformin (50 mg/kg B.W.) while groups D-H received 300 mg/kg B.W of crude Vernonia and the respective fractions of the plants. Laboratory analysis at the end of the analysis showed that the plant crude and fraction reduced the level of fasting blood glucose between 30– 80%, increased serum catalase and superoxide dismutase level while decreasing malondialdehyde level. The plant caused significant reduction in serum creatinine level compared to the untreated diabetic groups and the control groups. The study shows that Vernonia amygdalina reduces oxidative stress by causing a balance in the oxidant–antioxidant level as well restores deranged renal function seen in diabetes mellitus.
Available evidence suggest that adverse effect of health are caused by heavy metal and cadmium nitrate(CdN) has been shown to cause adverse health effect worldwide and liver is one of the organs mostly affected. The present study evaluates toxic effects of cadmium nitrate on liver of adult wistar rats.
Twenty (n=20) adult wistar rats of both sexes randomly divided into four groups (A-D) of five (n=5) rats each; Rats in group A served as control and were given 10 ml/kg/day of distilled water for 21 days. Rats in group B, C, and D (cadmium nitrate CdN group) were given 150 mg/kg/bw of CdN, 225 mg/kg/bw of CdN and 300 mg/kg/bw of CdN administered orally through an orogastric cannula into the stomach via the esophagus, once a day respectively, for twenty one (21) consecutive days. The gross anatomical parameters of the liver and liver histology were assessed. An assessment of the histological profiles of the liver showed distortions of the liver cytoarchitecture following consumption of CdN. Body weights of experimental rats decreased as compared to the control group. The mean liver weight also decreased as compared to the control. The serum levels of AST and ALT were significantly increased in CdN group compared to the control group. It was conclude that cadmium nitrate induced liver toxicity in adult wistar rats.
Tea is consumed almost worldwide as a beverage and for its perceived health benefits. Tea has been used in folk medicine to treat a wide range of disorders. Tea is believed to be safe but recent studies suggest that under certain conditions, components of tea may be toxic to the liver and testis in rats. This study examined the effects of a multi-herbal tea on sperm parameters, markers of oxidative stress and histology in the testes of Wistar rats. We analysed histology of testis, and estimated sperm parameters and markers of oxidative stress such as catalase and reduced glutathione in 3 groups of rats that had been treated with 150 mg/kg of a tea extract for 4 and 8 week durations. One of the treated groups received ascorbic acid along with the extract. Our results show that the extract caused a significant reduction in all sperm parameters, with a 25% and 50% reduction in sperm count and motility respectively. Tea also caused oxidative stress with raised levels of malondialdehyde and reduced levels of catalase and glutathione. The extract also induced considerable degenerative changes in histology of the testes. Co-administration of ascorbic acid resulted in significant improvement in all sperm parameters and protection of testes from histological damage. We conclude that tea may be generally safe to take but at certain dosage and length of use, multi-herbal teas can impair spermatogenesis and damage the histology of testicular tissue, at least in rats.
The present review is focused on the nutraceuticals which are present in our surroundings having an excellent impact over the health of humans but are not known for their pharmaceutical use. Nutraceuticals include vitamins, minerals and other dietary supplements, which may be herbs, enzymes, animal extracts etc. Various researchers have proved that nutraceuticals are having an important role in reducing the risk of various diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, Parkinson’s disease etc. with very few or negligible side effects.