Open Access Case Report

Mucous Retention Cyst – Review of Literature and a Case Report

Sonal Grover, Manpreet Singh Dev, Jitinder Batra, Rohan Talathi, Saurabh Singh, Ashish Gupta

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/25247

Mucocele is a mucin filled cavity and is one of the most common salivary gland pathology. It arises either due to severance of a duct or due to an obstruction to the salivary flow. In the former case, the more appropriate term is mucous extravasation phenomenon and the latter is called mucous retention cyst. We present a case of mucous retention cyst in 21-year-old boy who presented to Dental Out Patient Department with a chief complaint of swelling in his lower lip. With this case report we also attempt to review and highlight the differences between the two entities with a common name.


Open Access Short Research Article

Effect of Drug-Drug Interactions by Association Rule Discovery among the Elderly

Chien-Chih Wang, Jui-Chih Chien

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/25319

Objective: With the decline of the bodily function, the elderly increased polypharmacy frequency. The results lead to the danger for duplicate drug and drug interactions (DDIs). This study aims to analyze the effect of DDIs of the elderly in Taiwan.

Methods: The association rules and hypothesis testing technology were proposed to analyze the impact of drug-drug interactions, using the real cases in Taiwan Teaching Hospital.

Results: From the analysis, shown three results. Firstly, four out of 100 patients have the threat of drug interactions. Secondly, the proportion of drug-drug interactions is highest in the cardiovascular medicine. Thirdly, the number of drug-drug interaction for elderly is 2.01 times of the other people.

Conclusion: I suggested that the patient should be reminded to describe their medications for medical staffs spontaneously to help doctors for reducing the risk of drug interactions and drug wastage.


Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-mycobacterial, Antimicrobial and Phytochemical Evaluation of Pulicaria crispa and Scoparia dulcis Plant Extracts

Adedayo Adebiyi, Effa Emmanuel Bassey, Rachael Ayo, Isaac Bello, James Habila, Gali Adamu Ishaku

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/25199

Aim: To examine the antimicrobial activity and evaluate the anti-mycobacterial potency of Pulicaria crispa and Scoparia dulcis whole plant extracts in solvents of different polarities (n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol.

Study Design: Assessing the anti-microbial and anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of two Nigerian medicinal plants which have been reported according to folklore for treatment of various ailments including respiratory tract infections.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted at the Chemistry Department of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria and at the National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Abuja, Nigeria between November 2014 and September 2015.

Methodology: The standard pan sensitive tuberculosis reference strain (H37Rv), eleven bacterial and four fungal clinical isolates were used. Methanol, Ethyl Acetate and Hexane extracts of Scoparia dulcis and Pulicaria crispa (whole plants) were tested at 0, 20 and 40 µg/ml using the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay. The minimum inhibitory, minimum bactericidal and minimum fungicidal concentrations of each solvent extract were assessed. Phytochemical analysis was also performed.

Results: Phytochemical compounds obtained in the methanol extract fractions where alkaloids, balsams, cardiac glycosides, glycosides, phenols, steroids and tannins in Scoparia dulcis (Linn), while extracts of Pulicaria crispa showed the presence of alkaloids, balsams, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, tannins and terpenoids. Saponins were detected in the n-hexane fractions for both plants but only appeared in the semi-polar fractions of Scoparia dulcis (Linn). Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA) used for sensitivity study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with 10 µg/ml rifampicin revealed that the n-hexane extract of Puliaria crispa and Scoparia dulcis gave 48.44±0.75, 12.14±0.02 mm zones of inhibition respectively, whereas the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts gave a 24.10±1.35 mm and 17.00±0.91 zones of inhibition for Puliaria crispa and Scoparia dulcis respectively in comparison to 33.70±0.64 mm obtained from the control. The minimal inhibitory content (MIC) of the methanol and n-hexane extracts for Pulicaria crispa were recorded at 8.01±1.70 and 10.03±1.33, while the MIC values for the ethyl acetate and n-hexane extracts of Scoparia dulcis was 12.03±0.86 and 20.40±0.24. The MIC value recorded for rifampicin was 0.38±1.40.

Conclusion: The results obtained suggested that the studied plants possess anti-tuberculosis and selective antimicrobial activities with the major activity tailored to the phyto-constituents.


Open Access Original Research Article

Monosodium Glutamate Induced Hepatotoxicity and the Possible Mitigating Effect of Vitamin C and Propolis

Abd El-Aziz A. Diab, Reham Z. Hamza

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/24196

Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) has been recognized as a relish additive that adversely affects liver function's parameters. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of MSG on the liver enzyme markers, lipid profile and antioxidant system and also speculated the ameliorating effects of  Vitamin.C (Vit.C) and propolis in the rat liver tissues. Mature male rats (weighing 150-200 g and each group of seven animals) were given MSG (60 mg/Kg) and/or Vit.C (200 mg/Kg) and/or Propolis (200 mg/Kg) extract daily via gavage for 4 weeks. In the present study, MSG exposure resulted in an increase in the TBARS level and a decrease in the SOD, CAT, GPX activities in liver homogenates, with respect to the control. Supplementations of Vit.C and/or propolis to MSG treated group induced decrement in the level of  MDA, increased SOD, CAT, GPX activities. As a result, MSG afforded hepatotoxicity, which is reduced by administration of Vit.C and/or propolis to a great amplitude by the entire recovery of the liver function markers and the antioxidant status.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Properties of Moringa oleifera Oil and Anacardium occidentale Oil on Cadmium Induced Liver Damage in Adult Wistar Rats

O. D. Omotoso, S. A. Adelakun, N. O. Amedu, U. P. Idoko

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/24250

Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic heavy metals found in the environment. This study aimed at combined effects of Moringa oleifera (Mo) oil and Cashew nut oil on cadmium-induced liver damage in wistar rats.

Thirty-five wistar rats of both sexes were randomly divided into seven groups of five rats each. Group A received 5ml of phosphate buffer single dose intraperitoneally (ITP); group B received 3.5 mg/kg  3CdSO4.8H2O ITP; group C received 100 mg/kg Vit C and 300mg/kg Vit E orally; group D received 100 mg/kg Vit C and 300 mg/kg Vit E orally and 3.5 mg/kg Cd ITP; group E received 3.5 mg/kg Cd and 40 mg/kg Mo seed oil orally; group F received 3.5 mg/kg Cd ITP and 40 mg/kg Cashew nut oil orally and group G received 3.5 mg/kg Cd ITP, Mo seed oil and Cashew nut oil 20 mg/kg each. At the end of the experiment liver was harvest, immersed in sucrose and homogenized for biochemical analysis. The supernatants obtained were used with appropriate salts for enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), Glutathione Peroxidate (GPx), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Catalase spectrophotomerically with the use of spectrophotometer.

This studies showed that Cadmium significantly increased the activities of the antioxidant defense system enzymesat p≤ 0.05 such as MDA, GPx and Catalase and reduced the activities of SOD at p≤ 0.05 when compared with the Group A control rats which thus suggests the generation of free radicals and the treated groups also significantly increased the activities of the antioxidant defense system enzymes such as MDA, GPx and Catalaseat p≤ 0.05 when compared with the control group. This suggests that both Moringa Oleifera oil and Cashew nut oil extracts helped to restore the activities of the antioxidant defense system.

These show ameliorative effect of Moringa oleifera seed oil and Cashew nut oil on Cadmium induced liver damage.