Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Effect of Aqueous Extract of Curcuma longa Rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) in the Typhoid Fever Induced in Wistar Rats Model

Norbert Kodjio, Serge S. Atsafack, Guy Sedar Singor Njateng, Jean Baptiste Sokoudjou, Jules- Roger Kuiate, Donatien Gatsing

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/24949

Background: The pathogenesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) linked to chronic diseases such as typhoid fever has warranted the intensive search for plants with antioxidant properties.

Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract from Curcuma longa rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) in the typhoid fever induced in rats.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon, between March and July 2015.

Methodology: The Salmonella typhi infected rats (1.5x108 CFU) regularly received different doses of plant extract (10, 30 and 60 mg/kg or oxyteracyclin 5 mg/kg) daily for 11 days. The levels of parameters such as catalase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total peroxidase, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) were determined.

Results: The present study revealed that Curcuma longa has significant in vivo antityphoid and antioxidant activities and can then be used to protect tissue from oxidative stress. The result showed a significant decrease in tissues and serum catalase and peroxidase, and a significant increase in NO, MDA and ALP levels in negative control animals. The treatment resulted in a significant normalization of the levels of the above markers when compared with neutral control group.

Conclusion: Based on this study, we conclude that the aqueous extract of Curcuma longa possesses in vivo antioxidant activity and can be used in protecting tissue from oxidative stress in case of typhoid fever.


Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-oxidative and Hepato-protective Effects of Pseudocedrela kotschyi against Paracetamol Induced Liver Damage: A Biochemical and Histological Evaluation in Rats

Suleiman Ibrahim Eleha, Muhammed Abdurrasheed Ola, Oyedeji Samuel Oyewole, Adeosun Oyebola Ganiyu, Afolabi Olugbenga Onaolapo, Adam Moyosore Afodun

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/25194

Aim: Different parts of Pseudocedrela kotschyi have been widely used by traditional healers for treatment of various illnesses, many of which have been scientifically scrutinized. However, this study aimed at evaluating anti-oxidative and hepato-protective potentials of its aqueous leaf (LEPK) and methanol bark (BEPK) extracts in paracetamol intoxicated rats.

Methodology: Anti-oxidative and hepato-protective study was carried out by randomly dividing Thirty six (36) rats into nine groups with four (4) rats in each group. The route of administration was intraperitoneal, except Vitamin-C that was given orally. Group-1 received 5 ml/kg bwt single dose of Normal saline on the 6th day, Group-2 received a single dose of paracetamol (750 mg/kg bwt.) on 6th day. Group 3, 4 and 5 received 500, 250 and 500 mg BEPK /kg bwt. for 6 consecutive days. Group 6, 7 and 8 received 500, 250 and 500 mg LEPK/kg bwt. for 6 days. Group-9 received 500 mg vitamin-c/kg bwt. for 6 days. Group 4, 5, 7, 8 and 9 simultaneously received single dose of 750 mg paracetamol/kg bwt on the 6th day.

Results: The degree of protection and antioxidative potentials was measured using histomorphological analysis and assessment of biochemical parameters such as, transaminases (ALT and AST), malonialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). The doses studied produced various degree of hepato-protection by favourably altering biochemical parameters and showing histomorphological improvement. The effects of both extracts were comparable to that of standard vitamin-C.

Conclusion: It has been observed that the extracts could protect the liver cells from paracetamol damage, perhaps, by its antioxidative effect. The extract produced a significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent protection.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Khaya senegalensis (ASBEKS) on Lipid Profile in Diet Induced Hyperlipidemic Rats

I. U. Muhammad, A. J. Alhassan

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/25500

In this study, aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis (ASBEKS) was administered to hyperlipidemic rats to evaluate its effects on lipid parameters. Fifty (50) albino rats were divided into five groups (I, II, III, IV and V) of ten rats each. Group I served as normal control. Group II served as hyperlipidemic control group, Group III, IV and V were hyperlipidemic and administered with the extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg per day respectively for two weeks. At the end of the first week, five rats were selected randomly from each group, euthanized and serum was collected for analysis of lipid profile (Total Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol and Triglyceride). The remaining rats were euthanized for analysis of serum lipid profile at end of the second week. A significant decrease (p<0.05) was observed in the mean serum Total Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol and Triglyceride in test  groups (Groups III, IV and V) animals administered with the extract for two weeks when compared with the hyperlipidemic control (Group I). A significant increase (p>0.05) in HDL-Cholesterol was only observed in group V administered with the highest dose of the extract for two weeks. The observed anti hyperlipidemic activity of extract support the traditional claim and could be associated with its phytochemicals contents.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Magnesium Sulphate on Hepatic Biomarkers in Pre-eclamptic Patients in Selected Tertiary Hospitals in Osun State South Western Nigeria

Stephen Olajide Awofadeju, Joshua Oloruntobi Imoru, Modupe Fisayo Asaolu

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/24780

Aims: This study investigated the effect of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) on hepatic biomarkers in the management of pre-eclampsia in Osun State, Nigeria. This was with a view to providing scientific support for the use of MgSO4 in the management of pre-eclampsia, and also to investigate likely adverse effects of MgSO4 on the biological functions of the liver.

Study Design: One-factor, two controls - six test groups quasi - experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria, between November 2013 and July 2014.

Methodology: A total of two hundred and sixty (260) consenting subjects were recruited for the study, and were grouped into normotensive pregnant women at 2nd and 3rd trimesters (n=20/trimester), pre-eclamptic women not on MgSO4 at 2nd and 3rd trimesters (n=10/trimester) and pre-eclamptic women on MgSO4 at 2nd and 3rd trimesters (n=60/trimester). Also normotensive pregnant women at post-partum (n=20) and pre-eclamptic women on MgSO4 at post-partum (n=60). Blood samples (5 mL venous blood) were collected, centrifuged and stored as plasma before subjection to biochemical analysis. Blood plasma was analyzed for hepatic biomarker using standard Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Spectrophotometric methods.

Results: The results showed no significant difference in hepatic biomarkers of pre-eclamptic women on MgSO4 when compared with pre-eclamptic women not on MgSO4 at both second and third trimesters. The results however showed that, comparing the hepatic biomarkers between normotensive pregnant women at post-partum and pre-eclamptic pregnant women on MgSO4 also at post-partum, gave almost the same pattern with comparison between normotensive and pre-eclamptic women not on MgSO4, but for albumin in which there was no significant difference in the mean plasma level.

Conclusion: The results obtained from this work revealed that MgSO4 is devoid of any adverse effects on liver functions of pre-eclamptic women. This study further support its existing use as an anti-convulsant in the management of pre-eclampsia.


Open Access Review Article

An Over View of Chronotherapeutic Drug Delivery Systems Based on Floating Pulsatile Concept

Tubati Vaniprasanna, T. E. Gopala Krishna Murthy, A. Sambasiva Rao

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/23624

In the modern era of pharmaceutical research much attention has been focussed on patients’ health in terms of therapeutic efficacy and safety. The tradition of prescribing medication at evenly spaced time intervals throughout the day, in an attempt to maintain constant drug levels throughout a 24-hour period, may be changing as researchers' report that some medications may work better if their administration is coordinated with day-night patterns and biological rhythms. All these conditions pushed the formulation scientists to develop chronotherapeutic drug delivery system. This article focuses on different drug delivery systems its advantages and disadvantages, role of circadian rhythms in major risk occurring disorders, like joint pains in case of rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases like angina pectoris, hypertension, myocardial infarction, pulmonary disorder like asthma and their treatment by conventional and novel pulsatile drug delivery systems.