Open Access Case Study

Isolated Jejunal Transection at Two Place in Blunt Trauma Abdomen – A Rare Case

Dinesh Kumar Barolia, Varu Lal Damor, Shameem Ahmad, Deepak Sethi, Devendra Atal, Balveer Singh

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-3
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/24707

Blunt trauma abdomen leads to varieties of injury to the intraperitoneal organ. Isolated small bowel injury is rare entity in blunt trauma abdomen. Complete transection of jejunum at two places is also a rare presentation in blunt trauma abdomen. Most of the reported cases of small bowel injury were due to road traffic accident. We report a case of complete transection of jejunum at two places in blunt trauma abdomen without any injury to other organ due to fall off rock slab over abdomen. As per our knowledge, there was no reported case of isolated complete transection of jejunum at two places in blunt trauma abdomen previously.    

Open Access Original Research Article

Hemodialysis-associated Oxidative Stress: Comparison of Helixone® and Polysulfone® Dialyzer

Mourad Errasfa, Fatima Zahra Batta, Kaoutar Alaoui Sekkouri, Chakib Maaroufi, Mohamed Arrayhani, Tarik Sqalli Houssaini

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/24141

Background: Patients at end stage renal failure require hemodialysis, a process that contributes to oxidative stress, where the quality of hemodialysis membrane plays a key role.

Aim of the Study: We sought to investigate the effect of two different hemodialysis membranes (Helixone® vs Polysulfone®) on several blood biologic and oxidative stress parameters.

Patients and Methods: Among 86 patients of our hemodialysis facility at the University Hospital, 12 patients were included in the study according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients used Polysulfone® membrane in a first step of the study, then they switched to Helixone® membrane. Under the two kinds of membranes, we measured routine biologic parameters, and pre- and post- dialysis plasma oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde and Total Anti-Oxidant Activity, as assessed respectively, by the method of thiobarbituric acid, and an anti-oxidant activity commercial kit).

Results: With both Polysulfone® and Helixone® dialyzers, there was an important and significant increase of malondialdehyde upon a single hemodialysis session, however, the increase of malondialdehyde concentration was significantly reduced with Helixone® dialyzer as compared to Polysulfone® one. Plasma total anti-oxidant activity was reduced significantly upon a single hemodialysis session with both dialyzers, however, such a reduction was significantly higher with Polysulfone® (28% reduction) than with Helixone® (11.7% reduction) dialyzer. The levels of other routine blood parameters related to the performance of dialysis process (urea, uric acid, creatinine) under both dialyzers were similar.

Conclusion: Hemodialysis-associated oxidative stress, as assessed by MDA concentration and plasma total anti-oxidant activity, seems to be significantly reduced with Helixone® dialyzer when compared to Polysulfone® dialyzer. This difference may bring positive impact on hemodialysis-associated side effects on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antioxidant and Anti-bacterial Properties of a Contraceptive Herbal Mixture of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides Lam (Rutaceae) Euphorbia hirta Linn (Euphorbiaceae) and Abrus precatorius L. (Leguminosae)

O. E. Famobuwa, E. A. Adekunbi, T. A. Akinnifesi, G. F. Hassan

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/24422

Objective: The objective of this research was to evaluate, comparatively, the anti-oxidant and anti-bacteria properties of the mixture and the individual plants to ascertain if there is need for the continuous use of the herbal mixture as a contraceptive therapy.

Methods: The standard methods used to investigate the antioxidant activity were the standard methods of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Property (FRAP). Anti-bacterial activity was evaluated by the Agar well Diffusion method.  

Results: EH and ZX performed better as anti-oxidant agents than the herbal mixture. They compared favourably with ascorbic acid, the positive control. However, the herbal mixture performed better than AP. The herbal mixture did not show better inhibitory activity on the bacteria investigated than EH and AP.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the use of this herbal mixture as a contraceptive should be discontinued based on the results of the anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial activities. Both E. hirta and Z. zanthoxyloides performed better as antioxidant agents while A. precatorius and E. hirta performed better as anti-bacterial agents.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Refractive Errors among Saudi Medical and Pharmacy Female Students: A Questionnaire Survey Study

Manal Ahmad Al-Batanony

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/24633

Background: Visual impairment due to refractive errors (RE) is one of the most common problems worldwide. Uncorrected refractive errors pose a considerable impact on student’s learning, academic achievement and by extension employability. Education and near-work are both strongly associated with increasing severity of RE.

Aim: To determine the prevalence of refractive errors among medical and pharmacy female students in Qassim University, KSA.

Subjects and Methods: A cross sectional study of all medical and pharmacy female students in Qassim university, KSA aged 17-23 years from September to December 2015 was conducted. A questionnaire containing demographic characteristics, onset of refractive error and parental history of wearing glasses was filled by each student. For each eye independently, visual acuity (VA) was assessed using the Snellen Tumbling C eye chart at 6 meters distance. Pinhole test to evaluate the improvement of VA was used where its improvement was considered as a refractive error.

Results: A total of 223 female students were studied. The prevalence of refractive errors was 72.2%. Inability to see distant objects was used as a preliminary indicator of myopia which represented 61.5%. Despite RE is prevalent, only 11.7% of the studied group with RE wore spectacles during the time of the study, cosmetic reason (70.2%), as one of the cultural barriers, was the major cause behind that. Positive parental history, studying for 6 hours or more/day and student performance of excellent/very good were the significant risk factors for RE.

Conclusion: Prospective studies among medical university students involved in prolonged reading to confirm the pattern of RE and its progression during the course of study as compared to other students are advocated. Moreover, there is a need for further studies to evaluate the cultural beliefs surrounding female use of spectacles in Saudi communities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders and Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rawdha Tekaya, Aicha Ben Tekaya, Hana Sahli, Ines Mahmoud, Olfa Saidane, Leila Abdelmoula

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/24689

Objectives: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of thyroid abnormalities in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and to determine the characteristics of rheumatoid patients with thyroid disorders.

Methods: We conducted a prospective study over a six months period. Patients with RA were examined for thyroid disorders by clinical examination, biological tests and ultrasound exams. The characteristics of the rheumatic disease were recorded.

Results: Fifty five patients (41 women and 14 men) were enrolled into study. Mean age was 55.5±10 years, rheumatoid factor was positive in 89.1%, and 63.6% of them had an active RA (DAS28>5.1). Thyroid abnormalities were detected in 40% of the patients (n=22). The mean abnormality seen was asymptomatic nodules without biological dysfunction. There were no differences between RA patients with and without thyroid abnormalities in all characteristics of the rheumatic disease. Patients with RA have a high prevalence of thyroid abnormalities but this does not interfere with the characteristics of the articular disease.

Conclusion: Screening of thyroid disease should be done, as well as osteoporosis and cardiovascular risk factors, which are elevated in RA and are associated with some thyroid diseases.