Aims: To demonstrate the efficacy of several small molecular weight compounds having hydrazide groups, for inhibiting the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To show these same compounds have favorable drug-likeness properties.
Study Design: To synthesize tuberculostats and test their antibacterial activity in-vitro.
Place and Duration of Study: University of Nebraska, Durham Science Center, 6001 Dodge Street, Omaha NE 68182, and Texas A&M Health Science Center, Department of Microbial Pathogenesis and Immunology, 8447 State Hwy 47, Medical Research and Education Building, Room #3012, Bryan, TX 7780. From January 2015 to June 2015.
Methodology: Hydrazide groups were formed by covalently bonding hydrazine onto small molecules having a single aromatic ring by utilizing microwave excitation and evaluating for antibacterial activity. These compounds were placed into tissue culture media at various concentrations and then tuberculosis bacteria were added to determine the level of growth inhibition. Growth inhibition of the bacteria was measured as a function of compound concentration for assessment and comparison.
Results: Compounds A, B, C, and D carry hydrazide groups with various substituents that are bonded to a single aromatic ring. All four compounds show zero violations of Rule of 5, indicating favorable absorption and membrane permeation. All four compounds showed greater than 85% growth inhibition of bacteria at concentrations below 50 micrograms per milliliter, while assayed by colony forming units and luminescence. Values of Log BB suggests compounds A and C will have greater penetration into the central nervous system than isoniazid.
Conclusion: These four hydrazide compounds induced substantial inhibition of bacterial growth. Microwave excitation for the synthesis of hydrazide compounds is effective. These compounds have favorable drug-likeness properties and are highly effective inhibiting growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Aims: To demonstrate the histopathological changes in cardiac tissues of Wistar rats following exposure to developer effluent.
Study Design: A case control study.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Radiography, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria.
Methodology: Eighteen young Wistar rats of weighing 140-220 g were used for the study. The animals were divided randomly into three groups of 6 rats each based on the dose of developer effluent administered to them – i.e. control group I (0 dose) and experimental groups II (lower dose, 200 mg/kg) and III (higher dose, 400 mg/kg) respectively. The groups were further classified as either A or B sub-groups of three rats each, depending on the duration (14 or 28 days) of effluent administration. The effluent administration was done by oral gavages. Image processing and analyses were done using ImageJ software (version 1.49) to obtain particle count, circularity of particles, number of nuclei and number of connective tissue spaces.
Results: Normal heart histology was observed in the control group. In contrast, lower dose of developer effluent administered for two weeks caused mild edema on cardiac tissues and occasional loss of myocardial fibers. Fourteen days of effluent administration at higher dose indicated alteration in the cardio-myocytes, necrosis of intercalated discs, moderate distortion and enlargement of cardio-myocytes structure and edema. Administration of lower dose developer effluent for 28 days caused severe distortion and enlargement of the cardio-myocytes structure with destruction and loss of intercalated disk. The higher dose of effluent caused severe distortion and enlargement of the cardio-myocytes, loss of intercalated discs, and irregular nuclei after 28 days of administration.
Conclusions: The present study which indicated adverse effects of acute/chronic and long-term/short-term exposures to sub-lethal doses of developer effluent on Wistar rats’ heart tissues suggests the need for proper management and disposal of developer effluent.
Aims: To investigate the prevalence and susceptibility pattern Salmonella enterica strains to ceftriaxone in southwestern Nigeria.
Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Nigeria from November 2012-May 2013.
Methodology: Isolates of Salmonellaenterica were characterized by established standard cultural and biochemical tests and was screened in-vitro for their sensitivity to different antibiotics (ampicillin, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole and ceftriaxone) using the agar well diffusion method and their MICs determined.
Results: The susceptibility pattern of these strains to ceftriaxone and other antibiotics was examined to determine their prevalence among patients in South West Nigeria. 21 clinical isolates were screened in-vitro against five antibiotics. A higher number of the isolates showed MDR (76.19%) even at higher concentration of the antibiotics, while 61.9% were sensitive to ceftriaxone. Among the isolates, 71.43% resistance was recorded against ampicillin, 66.67% against amoxicillin, 38.1% resistance against ceftriaxone, 80.95% resistance against chloramphenicol and 57.14% resistance against cotrimoxazole. However, 3 isolates (14.29%) were completely sensitive to all of the antibiotics. The MICs obtained were higher (ranging from 30µg/ml to >100µg/ml), compared to the CSLI breakpoint standard. The result obtained showed an increased in incidence of MDR S. enterica strain in southwestern Nigeria, and that ceftriaxone is still remain the drug of choice against Salmonella enterica strains, even though the number of isolates producing resistance against the antibiotics is on the increase.
Conclusion: The results above proces that the rate and prevalence of MDR Salmonella enterica strains are of major concern mostly in developing countries, therefore clinicians and public health practitioners should reduce the rate of antibiotic prescriptions and encourage public health and personal hygiene to prevent S. enterica infection.
Background: Low Back Pain (LBP) is a common disorder involving the muscles and bones of the back. The patients ranged in age from 15 to 52 years. The condition may be further categorized by the underlying etiology as either mechanical, non-mechanical, or referred pain. Little is known about the epidemiology of this condition in the Saudi Arabia.
Aim: To review epidemiology of LBP in the Saudi Arabia.
Methods: A computer-based literature search was conducted using relevant keywords to retrieve studies conducted in Saudi Arabia relating to LBP. Fifteen articles were identified initially. After screening for exclusion criteria and retrieving full texts, a total of Twelve articles was used for this study.
Results: Seven studies were cross-sectional and found a prevalence and pattern ranging from 53.2% to 79.17%. Studies about risk factors/prognostic markers were conducted in clinical-settings; using a case-control design mostly (n=4) and Cohort study (n=1). Vitamin D deficiency, to determine the correlation between the vitamin deficiency and pain.
Conclusion: Low Back Pain has multifactorial risks, etiology and increased incidence and prevalence.
Recommendation: Future studies in the Saudi Arabia should focus upon surveying the extent of LBP, identifying various cultural risk factors and utilization of LBP markers in diagnostic and prognostic enforcement.
Oral Cancer has a remarkably high incidence worldwide and a significant decrease in its mortality and morbidity rates has been established if it is diagnosed in early stages. There has been always a strong need to develop new, objective, non-invasive methods for its early detection. Micronucleus has come up in the recent past as non-invasive biomarker for diagnosis of not only malignant and pre-malignant lesions but also many other significant diseases. Micronucleus (“MN") is defined as microscopically visible, round or oval cytoplasmic chromatin mass next to the nucleus. Micronuclei (“MNi”) originate from aberrant mitoses and consist of eccentric chromosomes, chromatid fragments or whole chromosomes that have failed to be incorporated into the daughter nuclei during mitosis. The MN assay has been widely accepted as an in vitro genotoxicity test and a biomarker assay for genotoxic exposure and effect in humans. An attempt has been made to review the related studies, utilizing micronucleus assay of buccal cells as a novel marker of genotoxicity in head and neck region.