Aims: A uncomplicated and outlay efficient spectrophotometric method is developed for the determination of Ibandronate sodium in unadulterated form and in pharmaceutical formulations.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacology Division (Pilot plant), CSIR-NBRI, Lucknow, India and Integral University up to 6 month.
Methodology: The drug was highly soluble in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) so it was selected as the solvent system for the drug. This method determines sufficient solubility of drug and assay sensitivity. The linearity range for Ibandronate sodium at its wavelength of detection of 215 nm was obtained as 25–200 μg/ml. The linear regression equation determined by least square regression method, were Y =0.0011X + 0.034, where Y is the absorbance and X is the concentration (in μg/ml) of pure drug solution.
Results: The absorbance be set up to rise linearly with increasing concentration of Ibandronate sodium, which is obtained by the calculated correlation coefficient value of 0.9999. The limit of detection and limit of quantification was set up to 8.6900 μg/ ml & 26.333 μg /ml respectively.
Conclusion: The validity of the determined procedure was assessed. Statistical analysis of the result shows elevated accuracy and good precision. The proposed method was effectively applied to the fortitude of Ibandronate sodium in pharmaceutical formulations without any interference from ordinary excipients.
Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of active and passive smoking on the urinary concentration of 1 hydroxyl pyrene, oxidative stress and renal activity in male subjects.
Methods: Urine samples each of forty active and passive smokers including forty non-smokers were collected in a 3L specimen collection jar with volumes ranging from 1450 ml to 2600 ml and clearly labeled according to their respective group. Blood samples were also collected from each of the subjects into heparinized tubes then followed by centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 10 mins to get the serum. The urine samples were used for the determination of 1-hydroxyl pyrene while the serum was used for the determination of antioxidant, creatinine and urea levels.
Results: There was a significant increase (P<0.05) in the concentration of 1-hydroxyl pyrene in urine of passive and active smokers compared to non-smokers but there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the concentration of 1-hydroxyl pyrene in urine of active smokers and passive smokers. The level of oxidative stress markers; catalase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase decreased significantly (P<0.05) respectively and the level of lipid peroxidation marker; malondialdehyde increased significantly (P<0.05) in the serum of passive and active smokers compared to non-smokers. However, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the levels of oxidative stress markers; catalase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase respectively and lipid peroxidation marker; malondialdehyde between the serum of passive and active smokers. A significant increase (P<0.05) in the level of creatinine and urea was recorded in the serum of passive and active smokers compared to non-smokers while there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the level of creatinine and urea between the serum of passive and active smokers.
Conclusion: In the course of active and passive smoking, oxidative stress and renal dysfunction were clearly aggravated and the dynamic equilibrium between oxidation and antioxidation was seriously disrupted. This confirms the toxicological effects of smoking on human health.
Retraction Notice: This paper has been retracted from the journal after receipt of written complains. This journal is determined to promote integrity in research publication. This retraction is in spirit of the same. After formal procedures editor(s) and publisher have retracted this paper on 26th July-2016. Related policy is available here: http://goo.gl/lI77Nn
Background: Respiratory dysfunction occurs in stroke patients. Little is known about the prevalence, clinical features and lesion topography in patients with dyspnea due to medullary infarction (MI). We aimed to evaluate the frequency and the clinicoradiological profile in dyspnic MI patients.
Methods: We serially reviewed clinical records and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in 2144 inpatients (1211 men and 933 women) with acute ischemic stroke from 2007 to 2013. The clinicoradiological features were studied in MI patients with respiratory dysfunction. The prevalence of dyspnic MI was estimated among patients with cerebral infarction or MI. Patients with extensive infarction in the brainstem or the posterior circulation area, and cerebral hernia were excluded.
Results: Ninety-five patients (47 men and 48 women) were diagnosed as MI. Six patients (2 men and 4 women) developed respiratory dysfunction. The prevalence was 6.3% (4.3% in men and 8.3% in women) in MI patients, and 0.3% (0.2% in men and 0.4% in women) in patients with cerebral infarction. Age was ranged from 38 to 78 years and the mean age (SD) was 70.0 (22.3) years. Abnormal respiration patterns included hyperventilation in 4 patients, dyspnea in one and apnea in one. Initial neurological examination revealed absent pharyngeal reflex and soft palatal palsy in all patients. Cough syncope, hiccup, dysphagia, circulatory failure, sensory deficits or dysuria was present simultaneously in several patients. MRI disclosed three types of lesion topography: 1) The bilateral medial and the right tegmental regions in the upper and the middle medulla oblongata, 2) The right-predominant extensive regions in the lower medulla oblongata, and 3) The left lateral and tegmental regions in the lower medulla oblongata. Magnetic resonance angiography or cerebral angiography showed severe degree of atherosclerosis, dural arteriovenous fistula or dissection in the vertebral artery. The prognosis was fatal in 2 patients, poor in 2 patients, and recovered in each one patient with and without intervention.
Conclusion: The present study indicated that the prevalence of dyspnic MI was 0.3% in ischemic stroke patients and 6.3% in MI patients. The neurological profile suggested cough, hiccup, circulatory instability, absent pharyngeal reflex, soft palatal palsy and dysuria. Lesion topography disclosed the tegmentum in unilateral or bilateral MI. Atherothrombotic mechanism and circulatory failure might predict high mortality.
Oral LD50 and hypoglycemic activity of aqueous fruit pulp extract of Adansonia digitata L. (AFPEAD) were investigated in this research. A total of fourty eight (48) rats were used, twelve (12) of the rats were used for oral LD50 determination, and were grouped into four (4) groups of three rats (3) each. The first three groups were administered with 10 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively, while the last group was subdivided into three groups of one rat each and were administered with 1600 mg/kg, 2900 mg/kg and 5000 mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively. Thirty (36) rats were used for the diabetic study and were grouped into six (6) groups of six (6) rats each. Group I served as normal control, group II served as diabetic control while Groups III, IV, V and VI were induced with diabetes and administered with AFPEAD at a dose of 1.00 g/kg, 2.00 g/kg and 3.00 g/kg body weight and standard drug (Chlorpropamide, 100 mg/kg) respectively for two weeks. The research found the oral LD50 of the extract to be greater than 5000mg/kg indicating that the extract was practically non-toxic and administration of the extract to test groups shows a significant (p<0.05) decrease in blood glucose level when compared to diabetic control after two weeks treatment with the extract. Thus indicating a hypoglycemic activity by the extract which might be due to the presence of various phytochemicals.
Inhibitory activity of crude extract of cysteine protease inhibitors from Calotropis procera against Plasmodium berghei infected mice was investigated. Various extracts obtained from the leaves, roots, flowers, latex and stem bark of Calotropis procera using different extraction media that included Sodium Chloride, Sodium Hydroxide, Hydrochloric acid, Sodium phosphate buffer and distilled water were used to evaluate for Cysteine Protease inhibitory activity against Papain enzyme. Sodium phosphate buffer extract of the latex of Calotropis procera with the highest Protease inhibitor activity was concentrated by cold acetone precipitation, freeze-dried and used for further studies. Subchronic toxicity study of the extract was carried out in a mouse model. Inhibitory effect of the extract on Plasmodium berghei Cysteine protease and in vivo studies on infected mice was investigated using incremental doses of 20, 30, and 50 mg/kg body weight/day. The crude extract exhibited inhibitory activity against Cysteine protease with an IC50 value of 25.50 µg/ml. The highest percentage parasite suppression of 48% was obtained for the group treated with 50 mg/kg bodyweight/day of the extract. Subchronic toxicity study using the effective dose of the extract at 50 mg/kg body weight/day showed a significant elevation in body weight of the animals and Alanine transaminase activity. A dose-dependent relationship was observed in the elevation of total protein and glucose concentrations in treated animals, but there were no significant changes in percentage PCV, triacylglycerol concentration, Aspartate transaminase and Alkaline Phosphatase activities. The result of this study shows that crude extract obtained from Latex of Calotropis procera is active against plasmodium Cysteine Protease in rodent malaria model and could be considered as a potential source for antimalarial drug development.