Open Access Opinion Article

Losing Terra Firma: The Case for Volunteerism in Surgeons

Junaid Nabi

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/22692

Surgery, The field of medicine, that has played a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare delivery for generations, even centuries. We have moved far from the time when breast surgery was a grotesque scene in a lecture hall to a state where dozens of operations are performed at outpatient (OPD) facilities. This change has brought with it certain limitations to the growth of the psyche of a surgeon. The tsunami of machines and technologies, which brought comfort and ease to the struggling patients, has also brought mindlessness and arrogance to the practitioners of this beautiful art. As we rely more on machines now than ever before, our approach has become, unsurprisingly, more mechanistic, and we may have lost our grip on the ambition we had when we entered our career: to help humanity. One of the most gratifying aspects of surgery is that we can actually heal a patient in real time; heal their wounds, both physical and metaphorical, with our own hands. This notion was consolidated in my mind as I volunteered at the Savar building collapse a while back, but the lessons I have learned are still very fresh. In this article, I have attempted to put my feelings and my hopes in to words, as a token to the global surgeons-in-training so they can take heed. In our classrooms, the focus on humanity has greatly reduced, and this has in turn produced surgeons who rarely follow the path of volunteerism. There is a solution to this disarray: separate the money from the art, not always, but occasionally. Surgeons have always been the beacons of volunteer activities; there is a reason Doctors Without Borders (MSF) constitutes more of surgeons than any other disciplines. With volunteerism, surgeons understand the world outside the hospital ward and gain insights into patient’s mentality and their fears at a more visceral level. The empathy we gain from such activities will eventually help us become better guardians of health when he re-enters these hospital wards.


Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Investigation of the Renal Toxicity of Monosodium Glutamate in Rats Determined by Some Serum Biochemical Markers

H. O. Akanya, I. F. Ossamulu, F. S. Adefolalu, A. V. Oloniyi

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/19825

The potential renal toxicity of monosodium glutamate (MSG) following dietary administration for four weeks in Albino rats was preliminary investigated by the measurement of serum electrolytes, urea and creatinine levels. The rats were randomly divided into four (4) groups based on the proportion of MSG supplemented in their diets. Group A was fed with commercial chow (control) while groups B, C and D were placed on 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0% MSG supplemented diets respectively. The serum electrolytes, urea and creatinine were analyzed using TECO Diagnostic kits. The sodium and chloride concentrations in the experimental groups were not significantly (p > 0.05) different from the control group. Group fed 5% MSG supplemented diet had the highest potassium concentration (6.00±0.83 Mmol/L) while the group placed on 0.5% MSG supplemented diet had the lowest concentration (4.68±0.16 Mmol/L). There was a significant (p < 0.05) difference in the potassium ion concentration between the experimental groups and the control group. The urea concentration ranged from 6.28±0.10 Mmol/L to 7.13±0.36 Mmol/L in the experimental groups whereas the creatinine concentration ranged from 1.38±0.48mmol/L to 1.4±0.11 Mmol/L. The urea concentration of rats in the experimental groups were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than the control group. The creatinine concentration of rats in the experimental groups were not significantly different (p > 0.05) from those in the control group. This work has shown that high supplementation of diet with MSG could induce hyperkalemia and hypouremia in rats.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil of Corymbia citriodora Leaves against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

Edward Missanjo, Idah Mkwezalamba

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/23172

Aim: To examine the antibacterial activity of essential oil of Corymbia citriodora leaves on two clinically significant microorganisms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

Place and Duration of the Study: The experiment was conducted in Science Laboratory at Malawi College of Forestry and Wildlife, Dedza, Malawi between July and September 2013.

Methodology: The essential oil of C. citriodora leaves were obtained by hydrodistillation method. The inhibitory effects of this essential oil were tested against E. coli and S. aureus using agar disc diffusion method. The bacterial culture were exposed to five different concentration of essential oils: 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% and control (ethyl alcohol) in a completely randomized design in four replicates.

Results: The results obtained indicated that essential oil of C. citriodora leaves has antimicrobial activity against both E. coli and S. aureus. The diameter of zones of inhibition by the leaf extracts of C. citriodora was 13.3±2.0 – 35.4±5.1 mm and 12.1±1.9 – 32.7±5.1 mm, respectively, for E. coli and S. aureus. The results revealed that a more significant inhibition was observed with a higher essential oil concentration. Thus, with increasing essential oil concentration, an inhibitory effect on the growth of E. coli and S. aureus significantly increased. At low concentrations, a significant higher inhibitory effect was observed on the growth of microorganisms in comparison with those controls.

Conclusion: The results, therefore, suggests that characterization and isolation of the active phytoceutical(s) from essential oil of C. citriodora leaves may provide a valuable antimicrobial agent for counteracting infectious diseases caused by E. coli and S. aureus, which have developed resistance to antibiotics.


Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Chloroform Extract of the Fruit of Tetracarpidium conophorum (Mull. Arg.) (Nigerian Walnuts)

Famobuwa E. Olaniyi, Osho I. Bamidele, Akinlami O. Omokehinde, Agbowuro A. Ayodeji

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/22898

Objective: To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of the chloroform extract of the fruit of Tetracarpidium conophorum (CEFTC). 

Methods: CEFTC was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using standard formalin-induced rat paw edema. The activities of the extract at different doses were compared to diclofenac, a standard anti-inflammatory drug. 

Results: In all the experiments, the chloroform extract of T. conophorum at 400 mg/Kg showed  anti-inflammatory  effects  which  were  significant  (p=.05)  and  comparable  to  those of diclofenac, whereas CEFTC at 200 mg/Kg was pro-inflammatory. This suggests that the extract could be harmful at low doses.                                                                                                                

Conclusion: The results showed that CEFTC at 400 mg/Kg possesses significant anti -inflammatory activity comparable to that of diclofenac, one of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). This supports its use as a potent anti-inflammatory drug in herbal medicine.


Open Access Original Research Article

A ‘Single Point’ Experimental Approach of Assessing the Inactivation Kinetics of β-glucuronidase by Aqueous-based Leaf Extractives Notably Used as Enemas

Kwabena J. Sarfo, Caleb M. Abgale

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/22249

Excess beta-glucuronidase in the caecum and colon is responsible for enterohepatic circulation of toxic aglycones, which have been implicated in development of cancer, diarrhea, jaundice and other disease conditions of the gut. Botanicals are potential sources of molecules, which can serve as dietary components for inactivating beta-glucuronidase. Enzyme inactivation is employed in this study to categorize the potencies of the leaf extracts of Alstonia boonie (Ext1), Vernonia amygdalina (Ext2), Heliotropium indicum(Ext3) and Momordica charantia (Ext4) to inactivate beta-glucuronidase. In a ‘single point’ experimental approach a fixed amount of five micrograms of each samples were tested for their ability to reduce β-glucuronidase activity. Extracts reduced activity of the control (100%) to about 5-30% in 20 minutes. Ext2 and Ext3 were more potent as inactivators recording lower Km, Vmax and kcat compared to Ext1 and Ext4. Ext2 and Ext3 treatments resulted in 619 and 843 fold decreases in β-glucuronidase activity respectively. The partitioning ratios kinact/Km, kcat/kinact and Dvalues confirmed Ext2 and Ext3 as the more potent inactivators of β-glucuronidase than Ext1 and Ext4. Furthermore, Ext2/Ext3 inactivation mechanisms may involve the formation of a tenary enzyme-inactivator-substrate complex, which could be different from the inactivation mechanisms of Ext1/Ext4. However Ext2, Ext3 and Ext4 treatment produced same magnitude of order of the inactivation reaction, n = 0.17 and inactivation rate constant, kinact = 0.0024 min-1 compared with n = 0.09 and kinact = 0.0020 min-1 of Ext1 treatment which are indication of the complexity and form of the molecules in the extracts.  Thus, extracts of similar chemical entities could display varying degrees of inactivation mechanism. These results show that the ‘single point’ experimental approach can be used to categorize the potencies of consumable botanicals for their ability to inactivate β-glucuronidase.