Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Various Concentrations of Quail Egg Solution on Glycemia and Antioxidant Parameters of Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

Patrick Emeka Aba, Domnic Chibuike Igwebuike, Jonas Anayo Onah

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/22723

This study evaluated the effects of different concentrations of quail egg solution on glycemia and some antioxidant markers in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Thirty adult male albino rats were assigned to 5 groups of 6 rats per group. Groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 were made diabetic by single intraperitoneal injection of 160 mg/kg alloxan monohydrate. Upon establishment of diabetes (fasting blood glucose levels above 126 mg/dl), the rats in groups 2, 3 and 4 were respectively administered with 30, 15 and 7.5 mg/ml orally daily for 21 days. Groups 1 and 5 were administered with distillled water. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels of the rats were assessed 1 h, 6 h, 24 h and 21 days post treatment. On the 21st day, blood samples were collected for malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (RSH) assays. Results indicate that administration of quail egg solution at the concentration of 30 mg/ml to the diabetic rats significantly (p< 0.05) reduced the FBG from 343.80 to 87.20 mg/dl on day 21 post treatment. There was significant (p< 0.05) reduction in the mean MDA values of the 30 mg/ml-treated groups compared to the negative control group. The SOD activity and glutathione levels of 30 mg/ml-treated diabetic rats were significantly (p< 0.05) higher compared to that of the diabetic untreated group. It was concluded that administration of quail egg solution especially at the concentration of 30 mg/ml to the diabetic rats resulted in hypoglycemia and improvement in the levels and activities of in vivo antioxidant parameters.


Open Access Original Research Article

MicroRNA Memory I: The Positive Correlation between Synergistic Effects of MicroRNAs in Cancer and a Novel Quantum Scoring System

Masaru Yoshikawa, Tatsunori Osone, Yoichi Robertus Fujii

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/22134

Aim: To investigate quantum characters of the microRNA (miRNA) gene as the disease memory device, at the beginning, a novel quantum scoring method was developed and its usability was confirmed by valuating miRNA–miRNA interaction.

Background: In general, activated miRNAs participate in regulation of gene expression via mainly inhibiting translation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) into proteins. miRNAs select their target mRNAs by the degree of sequence complementarity between miRNAs and target sites on mRNA. Therefore, a precious prediction of miRNA–mRNA interaction would be useful for clear up miRNA–protein functions in biological processes. However, although many computer algorisms for miRNA target prediction have been developed and improved, they still have shown many incorrect results. Thus, much more precise prediction tool in silico by using computers and databases is necessary. 

Methods: First, the miRNA–miRNA synergism was investigated according to modified previous algorism, and some synergistically-working miRNA pairs were collected. Next, we developed two new quantum scores, Static Nexus Score (SNS) and then Dynamic Nexus Score (DNS), and calculated them for each synergistic miRNA pair. SNS and DNS were derived from the miRNA-miRNA matrix that calculates quantum interaction between miRNAs from quantum energy in each single miRNA nucleotide. The synergistic activities of the miRNA functional pairs were evaluated upon the fold changes as synergistic effect (SE).

Results: The relation of SE in miRNA functional activity was subsequently examined with DNSs. As a result, positive correlation (R = 0.55, P < .06) was observed between DNS and strength of SE of each synergistic miRNA pair which is related to oncogenesis or tumor suppression.

Conclusions: The single miRNA-miRNA synergism would be important to predict biological function of miRNAs in cancer. This is the first report arguing that miRNA synergism could be showed through calculating DNS of each miRNA pair as miRNA memory device.


Open Access Original Research Article

Uroflowmetry Parameter Evaluation of Post Urethroplasty Hypospadia Patients in Padang

Adrioki Risa, Yevri Zulfiqar, Etriyel Myh, Erkadius ., Arry Rodjani, Irfan Wahyudi

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/22574

Introduction: Hypospadias is the result of an abnormal growth of penis in which the failure of the growth of urethral fold that resulted in the urethral meatus at ventral penis is located proximal from its normal position in glanular with or without chorde. The incidence of hypospadias is one per 250-300 birth of males. The management of this abnormality is urethroplasty, but this technique may cause short or long term complication. At the long term it is important to determine functional outcome of hypospadia urethroplasty since it has an impact in patient’s life in the future. One of the modality that can be used to evaluate the functional outcome of the surgical correction is uroflowmetry.

Methods: This observational analytic study with cross sectional design was performed in patients who underwent surgery for hypospadias correction with urethroplasty without fistula complication. The sampling technique that used was consecutive. The Q-max and Q-ave of those patients were measured using the uroflowmetry examination, and post-void residual urine was measured using ultrasound. The study was held in June-July 2015. Data presented descriptively, then analyzed using the T-test, and consideredstatistically significant p < 0,05.

Results: From 10 hypospadia patients that underwent urethroplasty and from 10 healthy controls comparable in general regarding gender, age, body weight and height, there were no significant difference in Q-max (p = 0,316), Q-ave (p = 0,288), and Post Void Residual Urine Volume (p = 0,686).

Conclusion: Post-urethroplasty hypospadia patients have no significant difference in uroflowmetry parameters with the control group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antiproliferative Activity by Ethanolic Extract of Red Alpinia galanga (L) Willd in Inoculated Breast Carcinoma Cells of C3H Mice

Aswiyanti Asri, Susanto Winarko

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/22301

Background: The objective of this study is to investigate the anticancer activity of ethanolic extract of Alpinia galanga Willd (galangal) on breast adenocarcinoma cells transplanted in C3H mice. In some previous studies ethanolic extract of galangal containing active substance i.e 1’-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), is used as anticancer by various mechanisms such as induction of apoptosis, inhibiting cell proliferation, antiinflammation and antioxidant.

Methods: This experimental study was designed by post test only controlled design group, using 32 C3H mice. The C3H mice  were inoculated with tumor cells and then divided into 4 groups: control group (K) and three treatment groups (T1, T2 and T3) given graded doses of ethanolic extract of galangal (225 mg/kobo/day, 450 mg/kobo/day and 675 mg/kobo/day) for 2 weeks. After all mice were terminated, we count the tumor volume of each mice. Ki-67 immunostaining was performed to analyse cell proliferative activity. All the data were analyzed with Pearson Chi Square and OneWay Anova.

Results: This study found that there is marked differences of tumor volume between groups, with control group has the highest tumor volume and treatment group 3 is the lowest. The immunoexpression of Ki-67 has highest mean score at control group  and the lowest at T3 group. There were statistically significant correlation between tumor volume and dose of galangal extract, and significant differences among groups of Ki-67 immunoexpression.

Conclusion: Oral administration of ethanolic extract of Alpinia galanga Willd at the graded doses  has anticancer activity on C3H breast adenocarcinoma by inhibition of cell proliferative activity and growth of tumor volume. The best result of anticancer activity is found in group with the highest dose of galangal extract (675 mg/kgBW). 

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro and in-vivo Activities of the Ethanol Pulp Extract of Annona muricata (Linn) Fruit in Albino Rats Infected with Salmonella typhi

Ebenener Oluyemi Dada, Olajide Sunday Faleye

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/22457

Aims: To investigate the in-vitro and in-vivo activities of the crude ethanolic extract of unripe Anonna muricata fruits in albino rats infected with Salmonella typhi.

Methodology: Matured unripe fruits of A. muricata were collected, dried, powdered and extracted using 70% ethanol. The extract was constituted with 30% dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) to make varying concentrations. For the in vitro examination, clinical and typed isolates of S. typhi were obtained from Don Bosco Catholic Hospital, Akure and Department of Pharmacognosy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. After which the ethanolic crude extract was assayed against the isolates using agar well diffusion method while the comparative study with standard antibiotics was done by disc diffusion method. Meanwhile, eighteen healthy albino rats of same age between 170-220g in weight were selected and divided into six groups containing three each. The infectivity dose (ID) was determined with the clinical S. typhi. After which the rats were infected and orally administered a standard dose of the A. muricata fruit extract (400 mg/kg) accordingly for 7 days. During the treatment period, the fecal samples were collected to monitor the ability of the extract to reduce the fecal shedding of S. typhi. Also, the rats were weighed daily to establish the effect of treatment on their metabolism.

Results: Ethanol extract of  pulp of A. muricata,  at concentrations of  50 mg/ml – 200 mg/ml,  could  not produce zone of inhibition (ZI) on  cultures  of  clinical and  typed S. typhi  isolates but at concentrations of 250 mg/ml and 500 mg/ml it produced ZI of 4.93 – 11.37 mm(P< 0.05) on the clinical isolate.  Minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract on typed S. typhi and on the clinical isolate was 150 mg/ml and 250 mg/ml, respectively. The MBC for the two S. typhi isolates were 350 mg/ml and 400 mg/ml respectively. S. typhi colony forming units per ml (cfu/ml) of  suspensions of faeces of infected rats, treated with the ethanol extract of A. muricata pulp  decreased significantly  (P<0.05) as days of the treatment increased while the cfu/ml of the control group increased(P<0.05). There was no significant (P> 0.05) difference between weights of S. typhi-infected rats treated with any of the regimes but weight of the untreated group (control) significantly (P<0.05) decreased.

Conclusion: Ethanol extract of pulp of unripe A. muricata appears to have inhibitory effects against Salmonella typhi.

Open Access Original Research Article

H2O2-clearance Kinetics of Crude Catalase Preparations from Prostate Cancer Cell Lines Treated with Physiological and Synthetic Small Organic Ligands of PPAR-γ

Justice Kwabena Sarfo, Theresia Thalhammer

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/20795

Aim: To determine the differences in H2O2-clearance of two prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and LNCaP treated with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) ligands 15-deoxy-Δ 12, 14 – prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2) and nafenopin (Naf)

Study Design: Catalase activity in cytosolic protein fractions was determined and the kinetic parameters Michaelis constant Km, maximum velocity Vmax, and Vmax/Km were used to determine H2O2-clearance differences and the presence of isozymes. Western blot of microsomal and nuclear protein fractions were used to determine the induction of PPAR-γ by ligand treatment and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes.

Place of Study: Department of Experimental Pathology, University of Vienna, Medical School Vienna; part of an ongoing study which started in 2000.

Methodology: One million cells of cultured PC-3 and LNCaP cell lines were treated with PGJ2 or Naf for 48 hours.  Enzyme kinetics and Western blots were used to confirm differences in H2O2-clearance.

Results: PGJ2 and Naf induced PPAR-γ greater in PC-3 than in LNCaP. Vmax of PC-3 catalase was increased by PGJ2 (1.37 fold increase) but not by Naf (0.09 fold decrease) treatment while Naf (1.29 fold increase) but not PGJ2 (0.26 fold decrease) increased the Vmax of catalase in LNCaP. The changes in Km by the two chemical substances were statistically not significant (0.2 < p < 0.6) for both PC-3 (mean Km = 0.59±0.05 mM) and LNCaP (mean Km = 1.2±0.036 mM) cultures. Changes in Vmax led to equal magnitude of change in Vmax/Kmbut which was again not statistically significant (p = 0.6) between PC-3 and LNCaP cultures (control and treatment cultures).  Lower Km always led to a lower Vmax and the vice versa but Vmax and Vmax/Km values were always higher for LNCaP than their corresponding catalase from PC-3 cultures.

Conclusion: The marked catalase activity of PC-3 and LNCaP, the high expression of drug metabolizing CYP450 enzymes and the different PPAR-γ induction kinetics in prostate cancer cells observed in this study can be explored for the modulation of redox status of prostate cancer cells with PPAR-γ ligands.