Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antibacterial Potency of Crude Ethyl Acetate and Ethanol Extracts of Morinda lucida Leaf, Stem and Bark on Mycobacterium Species, Isolated from the Chest Hospital, Obafemi Awolowo Teaching University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

Osuntokun Oludare Temitope, A. O. Oluduro, O. V. Odubanjo, T. O. Dada

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/20705

The plant Morinda lucida falls under the family Rubiaceae known to have wide usage in traditional medicine. Morinda lucida is a tropical West African tree of medium-size about 18–25 m tall, the bark is grey to brown in colour, flowers are white in colour, the fruit is a drupe, seed is ellipsoid, yellowish and soft. The purpose of this research work is to determine the antimicrobial properties of Morinda lucida against Mycobacterium species, a very virulent and infectious organism, isolated from the Chest Hospital, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. The method used to determine the antimicrobial potency of the plant extracts is the Agar well diffusion method. The antibacterial potency of Ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of Morinda lucida leaf, stem, and bark were tested against mycobacterium species including Mycobacterium fortuitum (ATCC 6841), Mycobacterium smegmatis (ATCC 19420, Mycobacterium abscessus (ATCC 19977), and Mycobacterium phlei (ATCC 19240). All extracts exhibited various degree of antibacterial potency against the test organisms with the ethyl acetate extracts of the leaf and bark being the most active and ethanol extracts were the least active. The zone of inhibition of ethyl acetate leaf, bark and stem extracts range between 3.0 mm to 18.0 mm and the zone of inhibition of ethanol leaf, bark and stem extracts ranges between 1.0 mm to 10.0 mm respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

MicroRNA Memory II: A Novel Scoring Integration Model for Prediction of Human Disease by MicroRNA/MicroRNA Quantum Multi-Interaction

Tatsunori Osone, Masaru Yoshikawa, Yoichi R. Fujii

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/22095

Aims: To further investigate quantum characters of the microRNA (miRNA) gene as the disease memory device, we calculated neo-score tool for miRNA/miRNA multi-interaction. Since the potential miRNA/target interaction is not one-to-one correspondence; therefore, the network of miRNA/mRNA is too busy to achieve the goal of prognosis and diagnose human disease.

Methodology: Neo-score tool based on quantum and electrodynamics for miRNA/miRNA multi-interaction, which are Dynamic Nexus Score (DNS) and Electric Field Tangent score (EFTS) is compare with Context+ Score Change (CSC) on PolymiRTS database, an integrated platform of the functional impact of genetic polymorphisms in miRNA seed regions and miRNA target sites within 149 human disease.

Results: The DNS was correlated with CSC. Since the EFTS was mathematically functioned into the DNS, the function of the DNS to the EFTS was integrated together disease prediction on CSC.  Further, a possibility was suggested in this context that miRNA/miRNA multi-interaction on the algorithmic function could be applied for specific discernment of disease without miRNA/target interaction complex.

Conclusion: MiRNA/miRNA multi-interaction may have an important role for prognostic and diagnostic technologies for human health. This is the first report demonstrating that miRNA memory would manage the etiologies of human diseases.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Resveratrol on Some Biochemical Parameters in Lead-intoxicated Male Wistar Rats

Salisu Muhammad Highab, Danjuma Nuhu Muhammad, Musa Aliyu

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/21835

Resveratrol is a potent antioxidant, demonstrated to ameliorate adverse effects of heat stress-induced toxicity. Information on the ameliorative effect of resveratrol on heavy metals induced organ toxicity is scanty. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of resveratrol on some biochemical parameters in lead-intoxicated male Wistar rats. The study employed 36 male wistar rats (150 - 250 g) divided equally into six (6) groups. The first group (negative control) was administered carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) 10 g/l body weight (BW) daily for 19 days. The second group (positive control) was administered lead acetate solution (120 mg/kg BW) daily for 2 weeks. The third group was administered lead acetate solution (120 mg/kg BW) daily for 2 weeks then treated with succimer (10 mg/kg BW) daily for 5 days. The fourth group was administered lead acetate solution (120 mg/kg BW) daily for 2 weeks then treated with resveratrol (200 mg/kg BW) daily for 5 days. The fifth group was administered lead acetate solution (120 mg/kg BW) daily for 2 weeks then treated with resveratrol (400 mg/kg BW) daily for 5 days. The sixth group was pretreated with resveratrol (400 mg/kg BW) daily for 5 days then administered lead acetate solution (120 mg/kg BW) daily for 2 weeks and considered as prophylactic group. All treatments were administered orally by gavage. The acute toxicity of Resveratrol was evaluated using Organization of European Economic Community (OECD) up and down method via oral routes in rats and the LD50 was found to be above 5000 mg/kg. Relative organ weights (ROW) of the animals were evaluated after euthanization. No significant (P > 0.05) difference in ROW of resveratrol treated groups when compared with positive control group.  Blood lead levels (BLLs) and biochemical parameters were evaluated. The results showed no significant (P > 0.05) difference in BW of resveratrol-treated group when compared to the positive control group. Resveratrol-pretreated group showed improved BW when compared to that of the positive control group rats, although the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). There was significant decrease in BLLs of Resveratrol-treated groups (P < 0.001) when compared to both negative and positive control groups. No significant (P > 0.05) change was recorded for the liver function parameters and electrolytes concentration, when the resveratrol-treated rats were compared to negative and positive control groups. Resveratrol has showed an improved body and relative organ weights in lead poisoned male wistar rats. Resveratrol has significantly decrease BLLs in lead poisoned male wistar rats. The result obtained from this study suggests that resveratrol possess ameliorative effects in lead poisoning.


Open Access Original Research Article

Moringa Leaf Extract Ameliorates Cerebral Cortex Tissue Damage in STZ-Induced Diabetes Condition

O. D. Omotoso, V. O. Olawuyi, J. O. Owolabi, B. J. Dare

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/15989

Moringa oleifera is a plant that has huge nutritional and phytomedicinal values particularly due to its rich nutrients, antioxidants and medicinal phytochemicals. This investigation examined the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on the histology of the prefrontal cortex of STZ induced diabetic adult Wistar rat; and the accompanying effects on diabetes-related disorders associated with lipid peroxidation (MDA) and the blood sugar of STZ induced diabetic Wistar rat. Thirty Wistar rats [n=30] were divided into three groups of ten animals each. Group 1 animals served as the control group (non-diabetic) and were simply fed ad libitum; Group 2 animals were administered 65 mg/kg of streptozotocin to induce diabetes and 200 mg/kg of moringa leaf extract to observe the effects of the latter; Group 3 were administered 65 mg/kg of streptozotocin to serve as the untreated diabetic group. Experiment lasted six weeks and the blood sugar level and animal health were duly monitored. The animals were euthanized at the end of six weeks and the brain tissues were excised and processed using the haematoxylin and eosin technique. Diabetic animals were hyperglycemic and had cortical neuronal morphological distortions and histoarchitectural disruptions indicating brain tissue damage. Moringa leaf extract was potent in controlling the blood glucose level in STZ-induced diabetes murine models; it also ameliorated the damaging effects or consequences of the diabetic conditions on the neurons morphology and relative volume and distribution in the cortical tissue.


Open Access Review Article

Assessment of Risk Involved in the Combination Medicine of Paracetamol and Caffeine

Md. Sahab Uddin, Md. Waliullah Wali, Abdullah Al Mamun, Md. Asaduzzaman, Md. Shah Amran, Mamunur Rashid

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2016/22198

Paracetamol (acetaminophen) with caffeine is a combination medicine indicated for the temporary relief of pain and discomfort associated with a number of conditions such as headache or muscle pain. There is a controversy going on this combination concerning their safety in patients, since 1 year later of their introduction in 1950. Paracetamol is a first-line therapy of choice in adults and children with fever and pain. Caffeine is used in this product to increase the pain relieving effects of paracetamol. Paracetamol has a narrow safety margin and there are number of risks associated with paracetamol. It is only safe and effective when used according to directions on OTC (Over-The-Counter) and Rx labeling. FDA (Food and Drug Administration) drug safety communication state that prescription paracetamol products to be limited to 325 mg per tablet, capsule, or other dosage unit, making these products safer for patients. Chronic or excessive administration of caffeine has been implicated in a range of dysfunctions involving the liver, renal system, gastrointestinal system, and musculature. It is difficult to arrive at standard dose, since caffeine is present in various consumer goods. The extent to which caffeine improves the analgesic effect of paracetamol is in doubt. Compared with paracetamol alone, a patient taking the combination of paracetamol with caffeine may be more likely to adverse effects than to get improved analgesia. The purpose of this study is to show the risk of liver damage, renal medullary necrosis and rebound headache associated with combination medicine of paracetamol and caffeine.