Due to its laxative effects, senna (Cassia angustifolia) has been used frequently in our country and the whole world. We aimed to present a case in which a probable hepatotoxicity and death occurred because of senna used in large quantities for a long time due to its laxative effects.
A sixty years old female patient admitted our emergency service with the complaints of weakness, abdominal pain and distension ongoing for about three days. She expressed that she had drunk a kind of tea made of senna for the treatment of her chronic constipation a long time and especially in the last month mostly.
According to anamnesis, physical examination and investigations, we concluded that our patient may have toxic hepatitis due to consuming a large amount of senna recently for her chronic constipation. We consulted the patient to gastroenterology and organ transplantation service. She was followed for multiple organ failure, but did not respond to the interventions and died before liver transplantation.
It mustn’t be forgotten that when used in an uncontrolled way, senna which is used as a laxative by people and easily reachable, can cause toxic hepatitis and also death.
Academic institutions have plentiful of unexploited compounds. A cost-effective repositioning strategy from abandoned molecules coming from different research projects was applied. This strategy was based on the creation of a 2D-database then the biological assaying following adherence to the the Lilly OIDD (Open Innovation Drug Discovery) program by combining in silico methods and in vitro screening modules representing therapeutic areas of significant interest. The best results involve some molecules, that demonstrated to be active voltage-gated sodium ion channel Nav1.7 inhibitors. The inhibition of Nav1.7 is considered to be a potential mechanism for the treatment of chronic pain. Other findings refer to the inhibition of PCSK9 (Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin type 9) synthesis, a convertase that plays a regulatory role in the metabolism of cholesterol. This work demonstrates that successful strategies can be established by mutual Academic-Industrial collaborations that can lead to the discovery and development of new drugs by a cost-effective approach by accessing complementary crucial skills and cutting-edge technologies, without costly investments to generate the highest quality data as efficiently as possible with small amounts of compound.
Extracting latent value from abandoned molecules from various academic research projects, might be the starting point for innovative and cost-saving opportunities for both Academia and Industry to accelerate discovery of new drugs and disease treatments.
Aim: Integrase inhibitors are an essential enzyme required for replication of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome virus. It is a potent target for anti- HIV therapy. A QSAR study is performed on the series indole -diketo, diketo acid and carboxamide derivatives in order to analyze the physicochemical requirements of integrase inhibitors and to provide structural insight into the binding mode of the molecules to the enzyme. This will help in the design of these molecules as integrase inhibitors and predicting the inhibitory activity of the newly designed analogues.
Materials and Methods: All the derivatives in the series were sketched using ChemDraw ultra v12.0.2 module of ChemOffice 2010 and the sketched structures were consequently used for the calculation of molecular descriptors available in QSAR software Spartan’14 and PaDEL-Descriptors software. Quantum, constitutional, topological and functional group descriptors for all molecules were calculated using Spartan’14 v1.1.2, 2013 and PaDEL-Descriptors software v2.18, 2011 and correlation between the biological activity and molecular descriptors was found through genetic function approximation adopted by statistical program material studio v7.0.
Results: The generated QSAR models revealed that SsF, minHBint3, minHdsCH, FPSA-1 and RHSA descriptors have good correlation to the integrase inhibitors activity.
Conclusion: The results obtained by regression analysis indicated that minHBint3, minHdsCH and RHSA is negatively contributing to inhibitory activity thus; enhancement of inhibitory activity can be achieved by decreasing the respective descriptors. Positive contribution of SsF and FPSA-1 specifies that increase of sum of atom-type E-state: -F and PPSA-1/total molecular surface area, will impart positive influence on activity.
Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of co-administration of caffeine (CF) and hydromethanolic fraction of Citrullus lanatus (CL) seeds extract on heamatological and lipid profile of wistar albino rats.
Methods: Heamatological parameters were determined using a Synchron CX5 autoanalyzer according to the manufacturer’s protocol while, plasma lipid profiles were determined using Randox diagnostic kits and the determination were based on CHOD-PAD enzymatic colorimetric method of Trinder.
Results: The result showed that administration of CL and CF on WBC and HB in group III and IV were significantly higher (p<0.05) when compared to the control group. Whereas RBC level in group IV was significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to the control group. The effect of CL and CF on the HCT, MCV and MCHC levels of rats in groups II and IV were significantly different (p<0.05) compared to the control group. TC concentrations of rats in groups IV and V were significantly higher (p<0.05). Also, LDL concentration in groups II and IV were significantly different (p<0.05) while TG concentrations of in groups II, III and IV were significantly different (p<0.05) compared to the control group. CF however caused a decrease in red blood cells and an increase in white blood cells.
Conclusion: It is therefore suggested that CF should be consumed only in moderate doses to ensure normal regulation of blood levels. The study also indicates the possible use of hydromethanoic extract of CL seed in the treatment of anemia. Furthermore, it showed that CF alone is not a risk factor for coronary heart disease, only when taken in conjunction with a diet high in cholesterol. CL when taken in moderate quantity is very good to the body due to its LDL lowering effects, although when taken too much it had a hypercholesterolemic effect.
The hippocampus is a part of the brain involved in memory formation, organization and storage; being a limbic system structure that is particularly important in forming new memories and connecting emotions and senses, such as smell and sound, to memories. Cadmium on the other hand is a metallic poison that affects the brain tissues as a whole, producing seriously deleterious effects. Antioxidants could ameliorate the negative effects of toxic substances on body tissues. Since Moringa oleifera seed and Anacardium occidentale nut oils are natural edible oils that are greatly rich in antioxidants and medicinal phytochemicals, it is important to observe their potentials in helping the body to combat the effects of cadmium toxicity particularly on the hippocampus. Thirty five juvenile male Wistar rats were grouped into seven: A, B, C, D, E, F and G. Group A served as the control and the animals were fed adlibitum; other groups had each animal administered 2.5 mg/kg body weight of 3CdSO4.8H2O to induce cadmium toxicity prior to treatment with the agents employed. Each Group B rat was left untreated to observe the effects and nature of cadmium toxicity; each Group C animal received 5 mg/kg body weight Vitamin C dissolved in 0.9% NaCl solution orally. Group D animals were given a daily dosage of 6 mg/kg body weight Vitamin E dissolved in olive oil each. Group E rats were treated with 4 mg/kg body weight Moringa oleifera seed oil each; Group F rats were treated with 4 mg/kg body weight Anacardium occidentale nut oil and group G rats were treated with 2 mg/kg body weight Moringa oleifera seed oil plus 2 mg/kg body weight Anacardium occidentale nut oil. Cadmium intoxication has observable deleterious effects on brain tissues. All agents used produced positive anti-cadmium effects, however to varying degrees. The natural oils were more potent than the selected regularly used antioxidants.
Aim: This study evaluated the effects of oral administration of varied doses of methanol root bark extract of Cussonia arborea on some serum biochemical markers of kidney damage and renal histomorphology of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
Methodology: A total of Seventy two (72) male albino wistar rats weighing between 100-105 g were assigned into six groups of 12 rats per group. Groups 1- 5 rats were made diabetic by single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate at the dose of 160 mg/kg and treated with 62.5, 125, 250 mg/kg bw of the extracts, 2 mg/kg bw Glibenclamide and 10 ml/kg DW respectively while the non diabetic group 6 rats received 10 ml/kg DW as serve as normal control rats. The treatment was daily through the oral route for 84 days. Serum urea and Creatinine were measured on days 42, 56 and 84 post treatment. At the end of the experiment, the rats were humanly sacrificed and their kidney harvested for histomorphometric assessment.
Results: Administration of 125 mg/kg bw of the extract, significantly (p<0.05) reduced the serum levels of urea and creatinine and equally ameliorated histopathologic lesions in the kidney when compared to the diabetic untreated group (negative control).
Conclusion: It was concluded that the methanol extract of C. arborea, at the dose of 125 mg/kg was strongly protective against kidney damages occasioned by diabetes