Aim: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of different leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera growing in Sudan.
Methodology: The antibacterial activity of leaf extracts (Water, Butanol, Ethyl acetate and Chloroform) of Moringa oleifera were investigated in vitro using Agar-well diffusion method against eight different Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.
Results: Ethyl acetate extract recorded the highest active extract against four microorganisms namely, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 49461 (16.0±0.5 mm), Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 (13.6±0.3 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 (13.3±0.3 mm) and Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876 (10.2±0.7 mm), respectively. Butanol extract was active only against Staphylococcus epidermidis (14.0±0.0 mm) and Staphylococcus aureus (10.3±0.3 mm). Water extract was active only against Staphylococcus epidermidis (12.3±0.6 mm). Chloroform extract showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (11.0±0.5 mm).
Conclusion: On the basis of the current findings, Moringa oleifera leaves could be a good candidate in the search for new antibacterial agents from natural products against different pathogens.
Aim: The present study was carried out to isolate azurin producing native Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains and confirm its presence using molecular techniques.
Study Design: Presence of azurin detection by molecular techniques such as PCR and SDS PAGE.
Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Life Sciences, University of Calicut, Kerala, India, between September 2013 to December 2014.
Methodology: Conventional microbiological techniques were used to isolate several Pseudomonas aeruginosa from environmental sources. The presence of azurin gene was confirmed by PCR. The extracted total cellular protein was precipitated by 70% ammonium sulfate followed by dialysis and partially purified azurin fractionated using SDS-PAGE.
Results: Out of 10 samples selected for this study 8 shows the presence of azurin gene using specific oligonucleotide primers in a gradient PCR, amplifying a single 545 bp DNA fragment characteristic of azurin gene. The extracted total cellular protein analysed using SDS-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, wide range of bands were present including a band corresponding to 14 KD Molecular weight in all 8 samples selected from PCR.
Conclusion: Presence of azurin gene was confirmed by PCR and partially purified protein fractionated in 15% SDS PAGE. Further study of purification and cytotoxic effect of azurin is required.
Moringaoleifera seed oil and Anacardiumoccidentale oil contain certain antioxidants including ascorbic acid, phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids; these antioxidants have potentials to act against oxidative stress generated by cadmium accumulation and activities in tissues. This study was aimed at investigating some antioxidant effects of moringa seed oil and cashew nut oil on cadmium toxic effects in the hippocampus of Wistar rats. Thirty five juvenile male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups (A, B, C, D, E, F and G) of five (5) animals. Group A served as control [fed adlibitum]; Groups B, C, D, E, F and G were injected intraperitoneally with 2.5 mg/kg of cadmium sulphate (3CdSO4.8H2O) to induce cadmium poisoning. After cadmium administration: Group B animals were left untreated; Group C and D animals received daily oral administration of 100 mg/kg vitamin C and 30 mg/kg vitamin E respectively; Groups E and F were administered 4 mg/kg of Moringa seed oil and 4 mg/kg of Cashew nut oil respectively- orally and daily, while Group G received daily oral administration of 2 mg/kg of Moringa oleifera oil and 2 mg/kg of Cashew nut oil [combined]. The experiment lasted three weeks [21 days]; animals were sacrificed and the hippocampus and blood were assayed for enzymes LDH, G6PDH, SOD and GPx. Average weights and blood sugar were also measured. Results indicate that cadmium caused oxidative stress in the hippocampus by upsetting the tested enzymes’ activities significantly; these effects were ameliorated by the anti-oxidant contents of the oils to varying extents.
Objective: This study demonstrated the significant changes of nutritional compositions, hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes of C. cordifolia leaves at different maturity stages.
Methods: Biochemical screening revealed the presence of reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar, starch, crude fibers and pectin in moderate concentration. Thiamin and riboflavin were estimated by Anonymous and b-carotene was estimated by Jensen. Cupper and magnesium content were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopic method. Phosphorus was determined by colorimetric means. The protease and amylase activity were measured by Kunitz and Jayaraman respectively. Invertase activity was assayed by Mahadevan and Sridhar.
Results: Reducing sugar and pectin contents increased rapidly while starch content decreased with maturation. Non-reducing sugar and crude fiber content increased up to the mature stage and decreased in ripen stage. The activity of amylase and invertase increased up to mature and thereafter decreased in ripen stage. Polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activity were high in immature stage but decreased in matured stage and thereafter increased in ripen stage while the activity of protease and lipase increased all the maturity stage.
Conclusion: C. cordifolia plant leaves demonstrated the variety amount of reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar, starch, pectin, crude fibers, b-Carotene, vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and several enzymes in the three different maturity stages.
Aims: The review is directed at the phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological activities of the medicinal plant Stereospermum kunthianum, Cham, (Bignoniaceae) widely distributed in the Guinean-savannah.
Results: A survey of previous scientific publications and available literatures revealed that tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides, sterols, coumarins, quinones and higher fatty acids have been isolated with various solvents from different parts of the plant. Extracts from the plant have shown antibacterial, antiplasmodial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrhoeal, anticonvulsant and antioxidant activities pharmacologically. Sub-acute and acute toxicity studies showed that Stereospermum kunthianum has a wide safety margin up to 1000 mg/kg b. wt. and can be used for long term treatment of disease conditions for which it is indicated.
Conclusion: Result emerging from the review of scientific studies unveil the therapeutic potential of Stereospermum kunthianum extracts and isolated compounds thereby justifying the use of the plant in traditional medicine as a remedy for treatment of various diseases in humans.