Open Access Case Study

Multiple Thyroid Ectopia with a Normally Located Tyroid: Can It be a Hereditary Disorder?

Ni̇lgün Kanlıoğlu Kuman, Serdar Şen, İbrahim Meteoğlu

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2015/19608

Heterotopic thyroid tissue - also called as ectopic thyroid - is a rare developmental anomaly. Above all, multiple ectopic thyroid glands including an intrapulmunary one are extremely rare.

A fourty seven years old female patient has been admitted to our clinic with a 12 mm pulmonary nodule detected in the lower lob anterobasal segment of her right lung while she was under preoperative investigation for recurrent multinodular goiter (MNG). We have learned that she had undergone thyroidectomy 31 years ago and MNG has occurred in the residual gland. Her sister had a history of operations both for orthotopic MNG and multiple ectopic thyroid; and also her mother had MNG but has not been investigated in terms of an ectopic gland. In the operative exploration, we have found the mentioned mass at the inferior part of middle lobe and performed a wedge resection. Pathologic examination of the nodule revealed a 1 cm gray-yellow colored well circumscribed thyroid tissue with the characteristics of colloid goiter. It was positive for Thyroid transcription factor -1 and Thyroglobulin in immunohystochemical staining. Interestingly, a sublingual ectopic thyroid tissue was detected by Tc99 scintigraphy at the postoperative period.

Such a case sharing a similar medical history with her sibling in terms of thyroid pathology brings to mind that the condition might have a hereditary aspect.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Aqueous Extract of Unripe Seeds of Carica papaya on Four Hematological Parameters of Salmonella-Induce Enteric Fever in Wistar Rats

Emudainohwo Joseph Oghenebrorhie Tedwins, Moke Emuesiri Goodies, Erhirhie Earnest Oghenesuvwe

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2015/19313

Aims: The study evaluates the effect of aqueous extract of the seeds of unripe Carica papaya on the haematological parameters of Salmonella typhi-induced enteric fever in Wistar rats.

Methodology: Enteric fever was induced in Swiss albino Wistar rats by intra-peritoneally inoculated of the Salmonella typhi isolate (0.6 ml, i.p.). Rats were divided into four groups of five rats each. First group served as negative control that was neither treated with neither standard drug nor extract.  Second group as positive control that was administered 300 mg/kg body weight of Amoxicillin capsule.  Groups three and four received 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya seeds. Blood samples were analyzed for haematological parameters (PCV, HbC, TRBC, and TWBC).

Results: The Carica papaya extract-treated animals showed an improvement in PCV compared to the control animals. The Carica papaya extract-treated animals equally showed a non-significant (P>0.05) dose-dependent increase in the mean Hb concentration relative to that of the control animals.  A non-significant (P>0.05) lowered TRBC was recorded for animals in the treated groups and Amoxicillin group compared to animals in the untreated group.  The 300 mg/kg Carica papaya extract-treated animals was able to show a significantly (P<0.05) higher TWBC compared to the other treated animals and even the untreated group.

Conclusion: It is concluded that aqueous seeds extract of unripe Carica papaya is able to improve and stabilize the haematological parameters of Salmonella typhi-induced enteric fever.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Outcomes of Urethroplasty for Hypospadias Repair in M. Djamil Hospital, Padang, Indonesia

Pande Made Wisnu Tirtayasa, Yevri Zulfiqar, Alvarino .

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2015/19251

Background: Hypospadias is believed to result from arrested penile development, leaving a proximal urethral meatus. It has challenged generations of reconstructive surgeons trying to extend the urethra with the goal of restoring as normal function and appearance as possible. It is commonly written that more than 200 urethroplasty techniques have been described.

Methods: We retrospectively review the medical records of patients with hypospadias that has been done urethroplasty for hypospadias repair in M. Djamil Hospital from January 2012 to January 2014. The inclusion criteria were all medical records of patients with hypospadias who underwent urethroplasty. The medical records with uncompleted data were excluded. Patients were followed-up by coming to the urology office in M. Djamil Hospital and by phone calling. The successful of therapy defines as no complications based on history taking and physical examination. The techniques used in the study were tubularized incised plate (TIP) technique, Koyanagi technique, onlay island preputial flap technique, transverse island preputial flap technique, and other techniques.

Results: Fifty-four hypospadias cases were included in the study, with 27 (50%) cases had underwent TIP technique, 15 (23.1%) cases underwent Koyanagi technique, 5 (7.7%) cases underwent onlay island preputial flap technique, 4 (6.2%) underwent transverse island preputial flap technique, and 3 (4.6%) cases underwent other techniques as their therapy for hypospadias. The positions of the meatus were in the glans (11.1%), distal shaft (13%), middle shaft (33.3%), proximal shaft (22.2%) and scrotal (20.4%). The overall complications were 13 (24.1%) cases include wound dehiscence 6 (46.2%) cases, fistulae 2 (15.4%) cases, difficult to urinate 2 (15.4%) cases, penile torsion 1 (7.6%) case, and hematoma 2 (15.4%) cases.

Conclusions: Hypospadias repair remains challenging based on urethroplasty techniques and complications following it. Surgical correction of hypospadias is individualized with the aims of achieving proper urinary function with adequate cosmesis.


Open Access Original Research Article

Bioactivity and Phytochemical Screening of Nigerian Medicinal Plants Growing in Ondo and Ekiti State against Bacterial Isolates from Pediatrics Hospital

Osuntokun Oludare Temitope

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2015/18805

The Aqueous, ethanol, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves, bark and roots of Acacia albida, Anchomanes difformis, Boscia senegalensis, Bridelia ferruginea, Ficus ingens, Indigofera arrecta and Moringa oleifera were tested for possible source of antibacterial activities against selected clinical organisms found in the pediatrics hospital in Ondo and Ekiti State, Nigeria. The selected clinical organisms used for this research work are Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. It was observed that all plant were potent against the clinical test organism. Anchomanes difformis, Moringa oleifera and Indigofera arrecta extracts were the most active medicinal plants during the course of this research work. Boscia senegalensis, Acacia albida, Bridelia ferruginea and Ficus ingens extract were not as active against the test organism. All the medicinal plants extract shows evidence of antibacterial properties. Phytochemical screening of the medicinal plants reveals, very important and vital phytochemicals like saponin, tanins, alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glucosides and anthraquinones, at a very appreciable also reveals presence of minerals like sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, zinc, copper and phosphorus at mg/100 g which are essential  to biological and physiological activities. The main objectives of this research work are to investigate the antimicrobial potency and phytochemical activities of seven Nigerian Medicinal plants on Selected Clinical Organisms.


Open Access Original Research Article

Pilot Study of Photoallergic Reactions to UV Filters among Dental Professionals

Maya Lyapina, Maria Dencheva, Assya Krasteva, Mariana Tzekova, Mariela Deliverska, Angelina Kisselova

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2015/19036

Aims: To evaluate if there are photoallergic reactions to selected UV filters among dental professionals (dentists, nurses and attendants) and dental patients.

Study Design: In the study were included dental professionals, occupationally exposed to UV-filters containing dental materials, and randomly chosen dental patients of different gender, age and occupations, the main inclusion criteria being the lack of occupational exposure to dental materials.

Place and Duration of Study: Department “Oral and Image Diagnostic”, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University of Sofia, between July 2014 and March 2015.

Methodology: We included a total of 59 participants: 25 occupationally exposed dental professionals (15 women and 10 men; mean age 43.57±8.76) and 34 dental patients (14 women and 20 men; mean age 40.41±14.17). Skin photopatch testing with Benzophenone – 3, Benzophenone – 4, Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), BUTYL METHOXY-DIBENZOYL-METHANE, and 2,2-bis-[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacrylo-xypropoxy)phenyl]-propane (BIS-GMA) (Chemotechnique Diagnostics) was performed, according to: Photopatch testing: a consensus methodology for Europe.

Results: Results for positive reactions to Benzophenone-3 and Benzophenone-4 showed no significant differences between the groups. A non-significant increase in the number of the reactions was observed among women (for Benzophenone-3 - 24.1% incidence after exposure to UV-irradiation vs 13.8% before - P=.23; for Benzophenone-4 - 13.8% after exposure to UV-irradiation vs 6.9% before, P=.63), and dental patients, (for Benzophenone-3 - 20.6% incidence after exposure to UV-irradiation vs 8.8% before - P=.75; for Benzophenone-4 - 14.7% after exposure to UV-irradiation vs 11.8% before, P=.54%). No reactions of photosensitization to PABA were observed in our study, no statistical significances between the studied groups were revealed. Concerning the positive skin patch test reactions to BUTYL METHOXY-DIBENZOYL-METHANE, no significant differences between the groups were revealed (P=.08). Results for positive reactions to Bis-GMA showed highest sensitization rates in all groups defined by us, but no significant differences between the groups were established (P=.40; P=.33).

Conclusion: The present pilot investigation failed to demonstrate any photosensitizing effect, but the sample is too small to determine if there is a tendency to increased activity of certain materials. Further work is needed to validate reliability.