Open Access Case Study

Eruptive Seborrhoeic Keratoses Induced by Oral Esomeprazole: A Coincidental Finding or Linked Pathogenesis?

Nilay Duman, Çiğdem Özdemir, Serap Polat

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 180-183
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2015/18850

Aim: Eruptive seborrhoeic keratoses are characterized by rapid onset of multiple seborrhoeic keratoses. They can be associated with internal malignancies, inflammatory dermatoses and drug reactions. Our aim was to present a case with eruptive seborrhoeic keratoses appeared during treatment with oral esomaprazole and to discuss possible etiopathogenesis.

Presentation of Case: Herein we report a 24-year-old female patient with eruptive seborrhoeic keratoses appeared during 1-year treatment with oral esomeprazole.

Discussion and Conclusion: Although, the association between esomeprazole treatment and eruptive seborrhoeic keratoses may be a coincidence, previously reported growth factor changes in both conditions may be pointing out a linked pathogenesis.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli in Neonatal Unit of a Tertiary Health Institution, South-South Nigeria

I. O. Idang, A. E. Moses, A. N. Umo, E. E. Ikpeme

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 155-162
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2015/18742

Aims: To determine the prevalence of multidrug resistant (MDR) and Extended Spectrum β-lactamase producing (ESBL) E. coli in neonates, their mothers and healthcare workers (HCWs) in the neonatal wards of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH), Uyo-Nigeria.

Study Design: It is a cross sectional hospital-based study involving neonates, their mothers and healthcare workers in the respective neonatal units of the hospital.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the University Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo between May and November, 2012.

Methodology: The study involved 310 neonates admitted in Sick Babies’ Unit, Special Care Babies’ Unit and Neonatal ward; their mothers (168) and Healthcare Workers (35). Body sites of neonates, palms of consented mothers and healthcare workers (HCWs) in these units were swabbed. Stool samples were also collected from the neonates and their mothers. Isolation and identification of E. coli were carried out using standard microbiological procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using the modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Extended spectrum β-lactamase test was conducted using the disc diffusion synergy method following CLSI 2011 guidelines.

Results: Neonatal and maternal E. coli isolates were 38(12.3%) and 82(48.8%) respectively, and HCWs, 3(48.8%). Among the neonatal and mother isolates, resistance to Amoxycillin/Clavulanic acid ranged from 1.2% - 2.6%; Ceftriaxone and Ceftazidime resistance, 29.3% - 39.5% and resistance to Cefepime, 21.1% - 25.6%. Isolates from palms of HCWs were highly resistant to all antibiotics. Fourteen neonatal strains exhibiting multidrug resistance (MDR) had 100% homologous drug combinations with 18 maternal isolates. Neonatal isolates that are ESBL producers were 15(39.5%); mothers, 26(31.7%), and HCWs, 3(100%).

Conclusion: The importance of maintaining good hand hygiene by HCWs in neonatal units is highlighted in this study. There were high rates of MDR and ESBL-producing E. coli among neonates, mothers and HCWs in UUTH, Uyo. Similarities in drug combinations observed among the MDR strains obtained from subjects indicate possible transmission of E. coli from mothers and HCWs to neonates necessitating epidemiological concern. The practice of proper hygiene by mothers and HCWs should not be made optional. The high resistance strains observed may limit therapeutic options for serious neonatal infections with fatal consequences. Increased ESBL surveillance in neonatal units of hospitals is advocated.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Decreased Serum Magnesium Level among Nigerian Women with Late Onset Pre-eclampsia

F. N. Okoye, A. S. Anzaku, J. I. Chigbo, J. Musa, I. A. O. Ujah

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 163-171
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2015/18500

Background: Pre-eclampsia is a common medical complication of pregnancy associated with increased maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Its etiology is unknown, although several evidences indicate that deficiency of various nutritional elements might play important role.

Aims: To compare the serum magnesium levels in a group of pre-eclamptic and normotensive pregnant Nigerian women in Jos, Nigeria.

Study Design: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, between May 2011 and April, 2012.

Methodology: We included 50 pre-eclamptic patients and 50 controls in the study. A structured questionnaire was administered directly on each subject. For each recruited pre-eclamptic patient, the next eligible normotensive patient matched for age, occupation, educational status, socioeconomic status, parity and gestational age was recruited as control. Venous blood samples were collected from pre-eclamptic and normotensive pregnant women. The sera from the samples were analyzed for magnesium using a photometric colorimetric analyzer (Diagnosticum Zrt; Budapest). The data were analyzed using Epi info 3.5.1 software (CDC, Atlanta Georgia, USA). Tests of associations were done using Student's t-test and chi square test. P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Mean serum magnesium level in pre-eclamptic women was 0.89±0.10 mmol/l compared to 1.07±0.12 mmol/l in the normotensive pregnant women (p = 0.001).The range of serum magnesium in the pre-eclamptics was 0.73  ̶  0.96 mmol/l while that in normotensive pregnancies was 0.95 – 1.26 mmol/l. In patients with mild pre-eclampsia, the mean serum magnesium was 0.93±0.09 mmol/l while it was 0.81±0.08 mmol/l in those with severe pre-eclampsia (p < 0.0001). Also there was an inverse relationship between serum magnesium and systolic blood pressure (r = -0.404, p = 0.004) as well as serum magnesium and diastolic blood pressure (r = -0.462, p = 0.001).

Conclusion: Serum magnesium level in pre-eclamptics was significantly lower than those in normotensive pregnant women. This finding supports the hypothesis that hypomagnesaemia may be a contributor to the etiology of pre-eclampsia. Introduction of magnesium supplementation in diet may help reduce the incidence of pre-eclampsia in at risk women.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Ex vivo Antiplasmodial Activity of Plant Extracts Used in Traditional Medicine in Côte d’ivoire

K. D. Tano, W. Yavo, J. N. D. Trebissou, A. T. Offianan, M. T. Dable, A. M. Amiah, E. I. H. Menan, A. J. Djaman

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 172-179
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2015/18138

In view of increased resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to almost all conventional antimalarial drugs, it has become necessary to search for new classes of molecules from traditional medicinal plants. Indeed, the best antimalarial drugs for which there are fewer cases of resistance today are derived from medicinal plants (quinine, artemisinin and its derivatives). In this study we evaluated ex vivo effectiveness of various extracts of Terminalia glaucescens and Erigeron floribundus on the growth of P. falciparum isolates sensitive or resistant to amodiaquine according to the optical version of the WHO microtest. Aqueous extracts activity of various organs of plants was first measured and then three organic extracts of each part of plant.

Leaves and roots aqueous extracts of T. glaucescens were the most active and showed respectively IC50s mean values of 2.69 µg/ml and 0.99 µg/ml on amodiaquine-sensitive isolates (AQ-S) and 2.74 µg/ml and 1.56 µg/ml on amodiaquine-resistant isolate (AQ-R).

Moreover with regards to the organic extracts, methanol extracts of leaves and roots of T. glaucescens showed the best activity with respective IC50s average values of 2.69 µg/ml and 1.39 µg/ml on isolates AQ-S.

The high antiplasmodial activity showed by extracts of T. glaucescens would favor their use as candidates for the development of improved traditional antimalarial drugs.

 

Open Access Review Article

A Comprehensive Review on Ethno-Medicine, Phytochemistry and Ethnopharmacology of Chrysophyllum albidum

J. O. T. Emudainohwo, E. O. Erhirhie, E. G. Moke, K. E. Edje

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 147-154
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2015/18641

Chrysophyllum albidum (Sapotaceae), commonly called white star apple is a very useful medicinal plant common in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. This review is an update assemblage on the traditional, phytochemical and ethno-pharmacological studies carried out on it. Its reported pharmacological activities in this review include; antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-plasmodial anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-diabetic properties, which justifies its traditional uses. The information in this work is intended to serve as a reference guide to researchers in the fields of ethnopharmacology, drug discovery and development of natural products from medicinal plants.