Although there are a considerable number of pain assessment scales, only some of them can be used for practical intentions. The Faces Pain Scale is used for children 4 to 6-7 years old, while the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) is used for children above this age.
A study from December 1, 2011 to May 31, 2012, was used to assess the acute pain levels among 177 children from birth to 13 years old in Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, an University Hospital Centre, a Pediatric Hospital and an Outpatient Services in Tirana. For patients incapable to verbalize the pain intensity in a reliable way (neonates to the age of four years old), the hetero-evaluation was used. The hetero-evaluation is realized only with one assessment scale, while patients older than 4 years and younger than 6 years old were assessed using the hetero-evaluation and auto-evaluation scale according to the Faces Scale and VAS.
The auto-evaluation of the acute pain intensity is applied according to two different assessment scales during the same procedure, on the same patients. The assessment according to VAS is applied in two positions, horizontally and vertically. The results obtained from the different scales and the VAS positions are compared. The NFCS and the Faces Scale are much more easily accessible by the nursing staff; while the multidimensional scales (OPS, CRIES, PIPP) were found more difficult to be used.
Aims: The study was aimed at determining the lethal dose of the fruit of Tetrapleura tetraptera and ascertains the wound healing effect of its acetone fraction.
Place and Duration of Study: The department of clinical pharmacy, faculty of pharmacy, University of Uyo, Nigeria, between July and September, 2014.
Methodology: Miller and Tainter method was adopted for acute toxicity testing of the plant’s fruit while the Excision wound model were used to evaluate the wound healing activity with the progressive wound closure rate calculated via the wound width and number of days for complete epithelisation was determined.
Results: The acute toxicity of the aqueous fraction of Tetrapleura tetraptera dry fruit was calculated to be 10,000 mg/kg body weight = 10.0 g/ kg body weight. Topical administration of the Acetone fraction with 0.4 g/ml and 0.6 g/ml doses produced significant increases (P=0.05) in wound width by 0.29±0.07 cm and 0.47±0.09 cm respectively in comparison with the 0.10±0.03 cm of rats treated with 0.2 g of Neobacin powder on the first 12 days after excision. On day 15, 0.4 g/ml had a non-significant increase of 0.06±0.04 cm when compared to the 0.2 g Neobacin powder with 0.02±0.02 wound width.
Conclusion: The acetone fraction of the dry fruit of Tetrapleura tetraptera was not effective on wound healing thus further work should be done using other extracting solvents like Aqueous, Methanol etc. to ascertain the wound healing effect of the dry fruit of Tetrapleura tetraptera claimed by the traditional medicine.
The safety of Archachatina maginata haemolymph on biochemical and hematological indices of albino rats was investigated. Twelve white albino rats were grouped into 3 (A-C) of 4 animals each. Group A rats serve as control groups and received no treatment, while groups B and C received 2 and 4 ml/kg of the haemolymph respectively, for ten days. Haemolymph administration resulted in a significant increase in the serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total protein, albumin, total bilirubin and creatinine but significant decrease in the level of urea and chloride than the control rats. While serum bicarbonate, sodium, potassium, body weight gain, Relative organ weight were not significantly altered. However, there was a significant decrease in the relative kidney weight when compared with the control values. Haemolymph also produce significant dose dependent changes in erythrocyte, leucocyte and platelet indices when compared with control values. However, clinical observations for toxicological studies shows that the haemolymph did not produce any grossly negative behavioral changes, but increase water consumption was observed during the experimental periods. The results indicated changes in the investigated hematological and some biochemical parameters showing a more pronounced effect on the liver function than the renal function tests and at a higher dose than the lower dose. Hence, caution should be taken when using the haemolymph of Archachatina maginata for therapeutic purpose because it may also have some liver or tissue membrane damaging effect.
Aims: The hydromethanolic extract of D. dumetorum was evaluated for antinociceptive and antioxidant activities to validate its uses in traditional medicine for these purposes.
Methods: The antioxidant activity of D. dumetorum was done in vitro using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) photometric assay. The antinociceptive effect of the extract were investigated using acetic acid-induced writhing reflex and tail flick models with aspirin and pentazocine as reference drugs respectively.
Results: The extract (200 mg/kg) produced a comparable effect to aspirin (100 mg/kg) in the acetic acid induced abdominal writhing reflex. In tail flick respond model, the extract produced significant (P<0.05) dose-dependent increase in pain reaction time (PRT) in the treated rats when compared to the distilled water treated rats. The extract (200 mg/kg) and pentazocine (3 mg/kg) produced 62.86 and 62.52% increase in PRT, respectively when compared to the negative controls. Similarly, DPPH radical scavenging activity of D. dumentorum extract produced concentration-dependent increase in the percentage antioxidant activity in the DPPH photometric assay. The extract at 400 μg/ml concentration produced antioxidant activity comparable to the standard.
Conclusion: The results of our study confirmed the uses of D. dumetorum in traditional medicine and provided evidence that tuber extract of D. dumetorum might indeed be potential sources of natural antinociceptive and antioxidant agents.
Plant-based medicinal products have been acknowledged since ancient times and several medicinal plants and their products have been used to control diabetes in the traditional medicinal systems of many cultures worldwide. Several synthetic oral hypoglycemic agents are the primary forms of treatment for diabetes. However, prominent side-effects of such drugs are the main reason for an increasing number of people seeking alternative therapies that may have less severe or no side effects but little toxicological information exists concerning traditional antidiabetic plants. The present paper is an attempt to list the plants with anti-diabetic and related beneficial effects originating from different parts of the world and polyhedral formulations. History has shown that medicinal plants have been used in traditional healing around the world for a long time to treat diabetes; this is because such herbal plants have hypoglycemic properties and other beneficial properties, as reported in scientific literature. There are some such plants described in this review, which clearly shows the importance of herbal plants and polyhedral formulations in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The effects of these plants may delay the development of diabetic complications and provide a rich source of antioxidants that are known to prevent/delay different diseased states.