Open Access Original Research Article

Self-medication Practice among Secondary School Students in Ekiti State, Southwest Nigeria

A. O. Awosusi, P. E. Konwea

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 61-68
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2015/16083

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the practice of self-medication and the types of drugs students self-medicate as well as factors influencing practice of self-medication among secondary school students in Ekiti State, Southwest Nigeria.

Methods: The study employed a descriptive survey design using a combination of simple random and stratified sampling techniques to select 500 respondents to form the study group. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect information from respondents within a period of six months. SPSS 17.0 was used to analyse the data. The research questions were answered using descriptive statistics of frequency and percentages. Inferential statistics of t test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to test the difference in the practice of self-medication between age groups and sex at 95% confidence level.

Results: The study revealed that 386 (80.4%) of the respondents do engage in the practise of self-medication. Also, analgesic 186 (38.8%) was the commonest of the types of drugs used in self-medication. On the reasons adduced for self-medication, the response “I know what to do always”  has the highest response of 72 (15.0%) followed by “I know what to do sometimes” of 218 (45.5%). The t calculated 0.82 was lesser than t table value 1.96 at P=0.05   which denotes that there is no significant difference between male and female in the practice of self-medication. Also, at 2; 477 degree of freedom, f calculated of 3.54 was greater than f table value of 3.01 at P=0.05 which signifies a significant difference between age groups in the practice of self-medication.

Conclusion: The practice of self-medication was found to be prevalent among secondary school students. Also, analgesic was the commonest of the drugs being self-medicated and significant difference exists among the age groups in the practice of self-medication. It was recommended that, health educators should organize health campaigns and sensitization program in secondary schools to enlighten students on the health implication of self-medication.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Physicochemical Properties and Quality Indices of Multisource Tadalafil Drug Products Marketed in Nigeria

Sunday O. Awofisayo, Jolly A. Nnamdi, Jeffry I. Osayande, Magnus A. Iwuagwu

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 69-76
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2015/16507

The present study evaluates and compares the physicochemical parameters and cost of some multisource tadalafil products marketed in Nigeria. Six randomly selected products were analyzed for weight uniformity, friability, hardness, disintegration, dissolution testing and assay. The assay for chemical content was performed using RP-HPLC method with isocratic run using acetonitrile: acetate buffer pH 2.8 (45:55, volume in volume) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and wavelength of determination of 283 nm. All the products passed the disintegration time and crushing strength tests with no significant difference in values (p<0.05), while all complied with the uniformity of weight specification except two products. The chemical content of the products was between 70.2 and 86.8% (weight in weight). The dissolution profile revealed that two products could not achieve 70% drug release after the 90 min dissolution time. The average shelf price of the originator product, for an equivalent pack of four tablets/capsules was N 8 000 (USD 45) while the other products were generally below N 2 000 (USD 11). The innovator as well as the two generic products that passed all the physicochemical tests can be regarded as pharmaceutically equivalent among the tadalafil drug products tested. There was an indication of high disparity in price between the innovator and the generics that is not justified by physicochemical test outcomes.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Drug Release Modification by Using Citric Acid and Glycerol Cross-linked Derivatives of Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Gum

A. Abdulsamad, A. R. Oyi, A. B. Isah, I. Odidi

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 77-90
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2015/16408

A derivative of cashew gum (CrosCCG) developed by cross-linking the gum with two cross-linking agents, citric acid and glycerol, has been used to modify drug release in Venlafaxine Hydrochloride tablets. Wet granulation method was used to formulate the tablets using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC ER K100) as a binder at 7.5%w/w. Increasing concentrations of the derivative was used to modify the drug release. The granules and the tablets formed were assessed by being subjected to the prescribed official tests. CrosCCG used at concentrations of 10 %w/w or lower enhanced drug release while concentrations above 10%w/w delayed drug release.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Assessment of the Gastrointestinal Tolerability, Anti-inflammatory and Antipyretic Effects of Diclofenac, Ibuprofen and Nimesulide in White Albino Rats

C. O. Ukwueze, C. S. Ukwueze, E. C. Nweze

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 91-97
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2015/17037

Aim: NSAIDs is among the commonly used drug in the management of disease conditions. The study carried out comparative assessment of gastric tolerability, antipyrectic and anti inflammatory effect of diclofenac, ibuprofen and nimesulide in rats.

Methods: The rats were randomly divided into four groups (A, B, C and D) of six rats each. Group A served as the control, Group B was treated with Diclofenac at the dose of 3 mg/kg, Group C was treated with Ibuprofen at the dose of 11 mg/kg and Group D was treated with Nimesulide at the dose of 3 mg/kg. The antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever, anti-inflammatory activity in formalin-induced edema and ulcer index in rats were examined.

Results: All the drugs had significant decrease (P<0.05) effects on yeast-induced fever and formalin-induced edema in rats with nimesulide having more effect on fever and acute formalin-induced edema, high gastric tolerability but less effect on chronic modal of inflammation. However, diclofenac caused more gastric damage (P<0.05) among the drugs.

Conclusion: Nimesulide could be the better NSAIDs for effective treatment of pyrexia, pain, and acute and chronic inflammation with less gastric damage followed by ibuprofen with moderate side effect.

 

Open Access Review Article

Food Allergens - an Overview on Molecular Properties and Diagnosis

Margarida Valério, Rita Sousa Gomes, Marta Almeida, Ana Margarida Gomes, Ana Margarida Neves

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 52-60
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2015/16073

Food allergy is an increasing and potentially serious problem that can significantly limit patient’s quality of life. The incidence of this disease has been augmenting in recent decades. Classic allergy tests do not reflect the exact immunological reality of allergy. Recently, many food allergens have been characterized at the molecular level, allowing an increased understanding of the immunopathogeny of many allergic disorders and also the development of molecular diagnosis in this field. The use of allergen components and the correct interpretation of the tests results require some degree of knowledge about the basis of allergen components, the concept of cross-reactivity and their clinical implications. In severe cases the study of molecular components of food allergens allows to define the allergenic phenotype of each patient. It also allows a more accurate evaluation of cross-reactivity that is defined as the immunological recognition by an IgE antibody of similar allergenic molecules (homologues) present in different food, improving patients follow up, with a more appropriate therapeutic decision of each case.

One of the most innovating tests in this area is ImmunoCAP® ISAC, which evaluates the patient’s reactivity to several allergens in a single assay, using a small sample of serum. It is a very useful tool to establish a well-defined diagnostic in more complex cases. However, it is important to remember that the costs resulting from the use of molecular diagnosis tests are not negligible and that they should be considered after conducting a thorough clinical story as first line approach and after second line diagnostic exams like skin prick tests and other less expensive specific IgE tests.