Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Structural Characterization of the Most Active Antidiabetic Fraction of Corchorus olitorius Seed Extract

Maxwell Osaronowen Egua, E. U. Etuk, S. O. Bello, S. W. Hassan

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 75-88
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2015/14855

Aims: This study was carried out as a step  further  in our investigation of the antidiabetic properties of ethanolic seed extract of Corchorus olitorius (ewedu) in the bid to Isolate and Structurally Elucidate the Most Active Antidiabetic Fraction of Corchorus olitorius Seed Extract. Previous studies with the crude extract of the seed had shown positive  results.

Study Design: Whole animal experimental research.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology, Usmanu Danfodio University, Sokoto, Nigeria between Sept 2008 and July 2013.

Methodology: The chloroform fraction of the liquid-liquid partition of ethanolic seed extract of Corchorus olitorius was subjected through column chromatography (cc) using a thin layer chromatography (TLC) to isolate pure compounds tagged C1, C2 and C3. The antidiabetic effects of the three isolates were tested in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats. Glibenclamide at a dose of 0.2mg/kg and normal saline were used as positive and negative controls respectively

Results: The results showed that there was no statistical significance difference (p >0.05) between the FBS of the treated and the positive control groups. The percentage reduction in fasting  blood sugar levels of the diabetic rats produced by the  pure compound C2 , C3, and glibenclamide were 17%, 10%, and 18%  at the 3rd hour of treatment respectively, and  9.7%, 8.2%, and 14.4% at the 2nd hour respectively. The most active pure compound (C2) which produced a near comparatively similar result with glibenclamide was sent for Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for structural elucidation and confirmed with gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC MS) to be stearic acid ethyl ester.

Conclusion: The percentage reduction in fasting blood sugar level of diabetic rats produced by the  C2 column chromatography (cc) fraction of ethanolic seed extract of Corchorus olitorius portrayed a lot of potentials though more evaluations  is still needed.


Open Access Original Research Article

Self-Medication with Antibiotics amongst Civil Servants in Uyo, Southern Nigeria

Eshiet Unyime Israel, Essien Grace Emmanuel, Effiong Grace Sylvester, Ekwueme Chukuma

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 89-97
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2015/15147

Background: Self-medication with antibiotics constitute a major form of irrational use of medicines and can cause significant adverse effects such as resistant microorganisms, treatment failure, drug toxicity, increase in treatment costs, prolong hospitalization period and increase in morbidity. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics and evaluate the socio-demographic factors associated with the practice of self-medication with antibiotics among civil servants in Uyo, southern Nigeria.

Methods: A cross sectional survey using self-administered, structured, validated and pre-tested questionnaires consisting of open and closed ended questions. 526 of these questionnaires were randomly distributed to civil servants working in the Akwa Ibom state civil service secretariat, Uyo.

Results: The prevalence of self-medication observed in this study is 93.9%. The most commonly used antibiotics in self-medication were ampicillin/cloxacillin 133 (28.3%), metronidazole 130 (27.6%), co-trimoxazole 70 (14.9%), ciprofloxacin 69 (14.6%), and amoxicillin 46 (10%).

The most frequent reason given by respondents for indulging in self-medication with antibiotics was the claim that illness was mild and hence did not require the attention of a physician 146(31%). Patent medicine store was the most common source of these antibiotics used in self-medication and patent medicine dealers were the most consulted for choice of antibiotics to use in self-medication. A significant number of respondents 183 (38.8%) were of the opinion that self-medication with antibiotics is safe and thus should be encouraged.

Conclusion: The prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics is high among civil servants in Uyo. There is an urgent need to educate the public on the rational use of antibiotics and enforce laws restricting access to antibiotics in Nigeria.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antiretroviral Therapy Contribution to Patients Health in New Juaben Municipality

Frederick Owusu, Kwame Asare Gyasi-Agyei

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 98-106
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2015/13809

Our study focused on identifying factors underlining the deteriorating health condition of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the New Juaben Municipality. After a review of the relevant literature, the following hypotheses were developed: the attitude of PLWHA to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is likely to affect their health condition; the fact of administering ART at designated clinics affects the attitude of PLWHA to ART and HIV/AIDS related stigma impacts negatively on the health condition of PLWHA. The objective of our paper was to look at the health status of PLWHA and the administration of ART in the New Juaben Municipality in the Eastern Region of Ghana. From the year 2000, PLWHA in the Eastern Region had been placed on ART. With Antiretroviral treatment, the situation in the New Juaben Municipality had not shown much improvement. One hundred and twenty (120) respondents were sampled from the New Juaben Municipality. Quantitative data was collected with mostly close ended questionnaire, analyzed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Chi Square hypothesis was conducted for each of the hypotheses. The results of our study rejected the null hypotheses successfully. Therefore, a generalization could be made, implying that the findings about the statistics of the sample could be applied to the parameter of the population.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Right Ventricular Diastolic Function in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using Pulsed Doppler Tissue Imaging

Aylin Ozsancak Ugurlu, Asli I Atar, Ilyas Atar, Oyku Gulmez, Serife Savas Bozbas, Haldun Muderrisoglu, Fusun Oner Eyuboglu

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 107-116
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2015/14459

Objective: To evaluate the global and segmental diastolic function of the right ventricle using pulsed tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in patients with clinically stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) without pulmonary hypertension (PHT).

Methods: Twenty stable patients with COPD (mean age 61.4±8.6, 16 males) with normal pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) (Group I) and 20 age-matched normal subjects (mean age 57.8±4.0, 11 males, Group II) were enrolled. All the participants underwent conventional echocardiography and TDI. TDI of the right ventricle was performed from four different segments. The early myocardial diastolic peak velocity (Em), late myocardial diastolic peak velocity (Am), systolic peak velocity (Sm), early diastolic velocity deceleration time (eDTm), duration of the S wave, isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRTm), and isovolumetric contraction time (IVCTm) were measured.

Results: The conventional echocardiographic measurements of the two groups were similar, but specific TDI parameters differed between the groups. The Em of the anterior wall was lower, and the duration of the anterior S wave and IVRTm in the apical 4-chamber (A4C) view for all the right ventricular (RV) segments were longer. The eDTm measured from the apex was shorter in the COPD patients (parasternal Em, p=0.003; duration of anterior wall S wave, p=0.02; A4C apical IVRTm, p=0.02; A4C middle IVRTm, p=0.001; A4C basal IVRTm, p=0.01; A4C apical eDTm, p=0.05).

Conclusion: TDI was more sensitive than conventional echocardiography in the evaluation of diastolic function in the patients with COPD. In COPD patients with an unlikely diagnosis of PHT, the diastolic functions of the right ventricle seemed to show some deterioration, but this difference failed to reach a significant level. Measurements of the basal segment of the RV free wall can be used to determine global RV diastolic function.


Open Access Original Research Article

Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases in Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo-Nigeria

Innocent Azekhueme, Anietie E. Moses, Samuel D. Abbey

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 117-125
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2015/15384

Aims: This study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in clinical samples from University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH), Uyo-Nigeria, and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility profile.

Study Design: This study involved sample collection and laboratory analysis of samples.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo between January and June 2013.

Methodology: Faecal, wound and urine samples were obtained from 280 in- and out-patients attending University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were identified using standard conventional microbiological methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility assay was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method and test for ESBL production was conducted using the Double Disk Synergy Test (DDST) following the reviewed Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines.

Results: ESBL was detected in 40 (47.1%) of the 85 isolates and E. coli was the major ESBL producer, 21 (52.5%) followed by K. pneumoniae, 19 (47.5%). The detection rates of ESBL producing organisms was higher in female patients (57.5%) than their male counterparts (42.5%), and also high in infants under 1 year of age (20%). The ESBL-producers were most frequently detected in paediatric ward, 11 (27.5%); surgical ward, 10 (25.0%) and GOPD, 7 (17.5%). Majority of the isolates encountered were multidrug resistant strains. Tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were the least susceptible antimicrobials to E. coli and K. pneumoniae ranging from 14.6% - 24.3%, while less than 50% were ciprofloxacin sensitive. Carbapenems were the most effective antimicrobials. All isolates were susceptible to imipenem, while >90% of the isolates were susceptible to ertapenem.

Conclusion: This study reveals that there is a high prevalence of ESBL-producing organisms in clinical samples, especially isolates from infants, in UUTH, Uyo with attendant high multi-drug resistance to commonly used antimicrobials. There is need for increased ESBL surveillance as it poses serious threat to successful treatment of infections and exacerbates the problem of antimicrobial resistance especially with commonly used drugs in resource poor settings.