Open Access Case Study

Diagnosis of Bilateral Type-A Radix Para-Molaris on Mandibular First Molars: A Case Report

Sathish Abraham, Neha Jaju, Priya Yawalikar, Rajan J. Mangrolia

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 64-69
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2015/14756

Successful endodontic treatment of a molar tooth having an additional root whether it is radix para/ento molaris; begins with proper diagnosis. Hence careful examination and assessment of intra oral peri-apical radiographs should be done prior to attempting access opening. These iopa's provide sufficient details regarding presence of additional roots. Mesial or distal cone shift technique could be used to assess according to operator's choice to confirm presence of additional roots. In addition to the intra oral peri-apical radiographs, CBCT evaluation is recommended for the correct diagnosis, as that will help in rendering quality treatment to the patients. Access opening design will require modification in order to accommodate a straight line entry to the additional root (RP or RE). Cleaning and shaping can follow with standard procedures unless there is presence of additional canals in the same root such as mid mesial canal. In such cases, it may be wise not to enlarge the canal with a 6% taper; as it will compromise lot of intra canal dentin and weaken the root. However, once the tooth is successfully treated endodontically; one can proceed to do crown prosthesis of clinician's choice depending on various factors.

Open Access Short Research Article

The Effect of Silymarin on Serum Concentration of Soluble Apoptosis Markers in β-Thalassemia Major Patients Receiving Desferrioxamine

Nafiseh Esmaeil, Marjan Gharagozloo, Behjat Moayedi, Milad Mirmoghtadaei, Mahdi Ghatreh Samani

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 52-56
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2015/12818

Background: Despite appropriate chelation therapy with desferrioxamine, iron deposition in visceral organs causes tissue damage in thalassemia major patients. Excess iron can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may lead to cell death and apoptosis. Therefore, antioxidants such as plant flavonoids can be an effective treatment to reduce ROS in thalassemia patients.

Aims: In this study, we aimed to investigate the serum levels of apoptosis markers in β-thalassemia major patients treated with silymarin and desferrioxamine.

Study Design: This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled 6-month clinical trial

Place and Duration of Study: This clinical trial was carried out at Sayed-Al-Shohada clinic of thalassemia, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, for 6-month between August 2009 and February 2010.

Methodology: The patients were randomized into two groups: one group (A) received desferrioxamine and placebo and the other group (B) received a combination of desferrioxamine and silymarin. Serum levels of soluble apoptosis markers including soluble Fas (sCD95,sFas), sCD95 ligand (sCD95L,sFasL), sTNF receptor type 1 (sTNFR1), sTRAIL and cytochrome C, were measured before and after the trial in two groups of 40 thalassemia major patients using ELISA kits. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 15 version for windows program; results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD) and significance set at P< 0.05.

Results: There was no statistically significant difference between desferrioxamine group and combined therapy group in serum concentration of apoptosis markers, except for sTNFR1 level (which decreased from 0.16±0.12 to 0.11±0.10ng/ml) in the silymarin treatment group (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Our observation of decreased circulating concentrations of sTNFR1 in silymarin-treated patients may reflect anti-inflammatory activity of silymarin in β-thalassemia major. The finding that silymarin treatment had no effect on the level of soluble apoptosis marker could be an evidence for safety of silymarin treatment in thalassemia major patients. However, measuring the membrane levels of these markers is necessary to validate these results, as they are not expressed equally in different tissues.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Various Preservatives on Pectin Base of Ofloxacin Vaginal GEL

Ekaete Akpabio, Grace Essien, Timma Uwah, Clement Jackson

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 43-51
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2015/14211

The effect of various preservatives such as Methyl paraben, Propyl paraben, benzoic acid and Methyl paraben, Propyl paraben (1:10) on a pectin – base ofloxacin vaginal gel was tested. Five batches of pectin-based ofloxacin vaginal gel were assessed by antibiotic sensitive test, determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bacterial concentration (MBC) for both the active drug and the preservative using Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli as the test organism. Physical properties such as colour, texture and PH of the various Pectin-based ofloxacin vaginal gels also were examined.

All the batches of the pectin-based ofloxacin vaginal gel showed susceptibility according to the Kirby-Bauer method of zone interpretations for antibiotics sensitivity test. However for the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination, the ofloxacin powder and other three batches of the pectin-based vaginal gel (i.e. gel with Propyl paraben, methyl paraben: propyl paraben (1:10) and benzoic acid) showed susceptibility for both organisms according to the interpretation criteria and one batch (i.e. gel with methyl paraben) showed susceptibility to S. aureus and intermediate with E. coli. One of the batches (the control) showed resistance to both organisms. Also ofloxacin powder showed bactericidal activities on four batches while the control (i.e. without preservative) did not exhibit any antibacterial activity after the MBC determination.


Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Leaf Chloroform Extract of Palisota hirsuta

Madubuike G. Kelechi, Asuzu I. Uzoma

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 57-63
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2015/13813

Objective: To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of the chloroform leaf extract of Palisota hirsuta (CLEPH).

Methods: CLEPH was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using standard experimental models of inflammation namely: Croton oil-induced mouse ear edema, carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma test. The activities of the extract at different doses were compared to indomethacin, a standard anti-inflammatory drug.

Results: In all the experiments, the chloroform extract of P. hirsuta showed in a dose-dependent manner, anti-inflammatory effects which were significant (p˂0.05) and comparable to those of indomethacin.

Conclusion: The results showed that CLEPH possess significant anti-inflammatory activity. This supports its use as an anti-inflammatory recipe in folk medicine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Age Related Serum Antimullerian Hormone Concentrations among Infertile Versus Fertile Women

Chelsi Goodman, María Bustillo, Arielle Port, Carolyn B. Coulam

Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 70-74
DOI: 10.9734/JAMPS/2015/13883

Aims: Antimullerian hormone (AMH) has been accepted as a marker for the size of the ovarian follicle pool. To interrupt the results of this investigation, age-specific concentrations are needed. The purpose of this study is to compare antimullerian hormone (AMH) concentrations among infertile women ages 22 to 32 years experiencing regular menses with oocytes donors of the same age.

Study Design: Cohort study.

Place and Duration of Study: South Florida Institute for Reproductive Medicine, Miami, Florida and Reproductive Medicine Institute, Evanston, IL. Samples drawn between June 2008   and June 2012.

Methodology: 400 infertile women and 102 oocyte donors aged 22-32 years with a history of regular menses and who were undergoing in vitro fertilization procedures for treatment of infertility had blood drawn for determination of AMH concentrations. Serum AMH was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using an AMH ELISA kit (Beckman Coulter, Chaska, MN, USA).

Results: When the mean +2 standard deviations of the serum AMH concentrations among infertile women with regular menses were compared with age-specific oocyte donors, a significant decrease among  infertile women  was noted at all age groups.

Conclusion: A significant proportion of infertile women have lower than average ovarian reserve, suggesting that serum AMH values reflect follicular supply somewhat independent of age.