Purpose/Aim of study: We postulate that the timing of phacoemulsification relative to pars plana vitrectomy, internal limiting membrane peel (before, during or after) and gas is an important risk factor for cystoid macular edema.
Materials and Methods: We report a retrospective study of 43 eyes in 43 patients. All patients underwent vitrectomy, internal limiting membrane peeling and gas for full-thickness macular hole. Patients were categorized according to their phakic status prior to vitrectomy. Group 1 remained phakic through the 12-month study and acted as a control group, group 2 had combined surgery, group 3 were pseudophakic prior to vitrectomy and group 4 became pseudophakic subsequent to vitrectomy. Patients with postoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT)-proven CME with at least one cyst within the OCT field associated with increased central macular thickness (CMT) were identified.
Results: CME was noted in 6/43 patients (14%). CME occurred in 38% of group 4 compared to 0% of group 1, 11% of group 2 and 11% of group 3. This difference did not reach statistical significance when rates were compared to group 1 (Anova: group 2: p = 0.853; group 3: p = 0.876; group 4: p = 0.173). The mean (± standard deviation) LogMAR best-corrected mean visual acuity (BCVA) improved from 0.44 (±0.27) at time of CME diagnosis to 0.35 (±0.19), with a mean decrease in CMT from 392.2 (±102.5) µm to 287.7 (±34.0) µm.
Conclusions: We report a trend of higher incidence and recurrence of CME in vitrectomized ILM-peeled eyes undergoing phacoemulsification than in other sequences of these procedures.
Aims: The study was aimed at evaluating the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of C. sieberiana leaves.
Study Design: Hepatoprotective, in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Animal Health and Production, College of Veterinary Medicine, Micheal Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State, June 2014.
Methodology:Cassia sieberiana leaves were extracted with 80% methanol for 48 h using cold maceration method. The hepatoprotective activity of C. sieberiana extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) and silymarin (100 mg/kg) was evaluated using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The antioxidant activity was determined using both in vitro (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl photometric assay) and in vivo (malondialdehyde and catalase level assay) models.
Results: The extraction of the C. sieberiana leaves for 48 h using cold maceration method yielded 9.5% w/w of dark green and pasty extract. The phytochemical spot test of the CSE showed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpene/sterol, glycosides and tannins. The extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) and silymarin (100 mg/kg) produced a significant (p < 0.05) dose-dependent increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphate levels in serum of treated rats, when compared with the negative control group. The extract (25 – 400 µg/ml concentration) produced a concentration-dependent increase in antioxidant activity in 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) photometric assay. The IC50 of the extract in DPPH photometric assay was 50 µg/ml concentrations. The extract and silymarin showed a significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent increase in catalase level in treated rats, when compared with the negative control group. Also, the extract (400 mg/kg) and silymarin (100 mg/kg) produced a significant (p<0.05) decrease in malondialdehyde level in treated rats, when compared with the negative control group.
Conclusion: This study demonstrates that C. sieberiana leaves have a potent hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities. It justified the use of C. sieberiana leaves in the treatment of liver injury related disease in folk medicine.
Aims: To evaluate the antisickling and antibacterial activities of Gardenia ternifolia and Uapaca heudelotii.
Study Design: Evaluation of the antisickling and antibacterial activities of anthocyanins and organic acids extracted from Gardenia ternifolia and Uapaca heudelotii In vitro.
Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Science, University of Kinshasa, between November 2012 and April 2013.
Methodology: The antisickling and antibacterial activities of anthocyanins and organic acids extracted from Gardenia ternifolia and Uapaca heudelotii were assessed using Emmel, and disc diffusion and micro-dilution methods respectively. The disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of extracts while the micro-dilution method was performed to determine their MIC and MBC.
Results: The present study revealed that anthocyanins and organic acids extracts from G. ternifolia and U. heudelotii possess antisickling and antibacterial activities. All tested extracts from U. heudelotii displayed interesting antisickling and antibacterial effects. At the extract dose of 6. 25 µg/mL, the calculated normalization rates were 70% (for anthocyanins extract of U. heudelotii), 80% (for organic acids extract of U. heudelotii), 68% (for anthocyanins extract of G. ternifolia) and 72% (for organic acids extract of G. ternifolia). The reference bacterial strains S. aureus were more sensitive to anthocyanins extract: MIC = 31.25 (U. heudelotii) and 62.5 µg/mL (G. ternifolia) than the E. coli strains: MIC = 62.5 µg/mL (U. heudelotii) and 125 µg/mL (G. ternifolia).
Conclusion: This study provides a scientific basis for the antimibacterial and antisickling activities of anthocyanins and organic acids extracts from Gardenia ternifolia and Uapaca heudelotii. Isolation of different molecules may further yield significant antibacterial and antisickling new leads compounds.
Aims: To determine O6-Methylguanine in Cancer Patient Blood during Administration of Cyclophosphamide using Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.
Place and Duration of Study: Dharmais Cancer Hospital and Bioavailability/Bioequivalence Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Indonesia. Duration: Dec 2012 until May 2013.
Methodology Study Design: This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Medical Faculty, University of Indonesia. Cross sectional design was conducted for this study, blood samples were collected from 72 cancer patients receiving four or more cycles of chemotherapy with regiment which contains cyclophosphamide. DNA adduct was analysed from isolated DNA after the fourth cycle chemotherapy or more by UPLC-MS/MS ESI+ and the analysis mode on value of m/z 166.10>149.10 and 166.10>134.10.
Results: The method was validated using a calibration curve with good linearity (r>0.999); the coefficient of variance was <6.54%; the recovery was in the range of 90.52-109.65% Among 72 analyzed samples, O6-methylguanine was detected in 17 samples and could be quantified in 1 sample at a concentration of 5.87 ng/mL.
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that O6-methylguanine is not always found in cancer patients treated with cyclophosphamide. The detected and quantified O6-methylguanine can be a predictor of secondary cancer risk therefore, the dose administered should be monitored and set to the appropriate and safe levels, in order to reduce the risk of secondary cancer.
Drug release profile and bioavailability indices have been well correlated with the quality of drug products. A comparative evaluation of the quality control parameters and hypoglycaemic drug performance check of some brands of glibenclamide tablets was studied. The physicochemical parameters of the brands were evaluated through uniformity of weight, friability and hardness tests along with disintegration and dissolution profile in phosphate buffer (pH 8). The hypoglycaemic drug performance of the brands was evaluated by twice daily oral dosing of 5mg glibenclamide tablet under controlled evening meal and fasting blood sugar (FBS) determinations. The statistical inferences about the groups’ mean fasting blood sugar (MFBS) were compared with a postulated/expected population MFBS of 5.0 mmol/L and the hypothesis that there was no difference in the population from which the MFBS was obtained for each group treatment, was tested. The brands complied with the USP specifications for tablet hardness, weight uniformity, and friability and disintegration tests. There was no significant difference in the chemical content among the brands at CI=95%. The assay gave a chemical content between 92.4% and 102.5%w/w for the drug brands. The dissolution profiles in phosphate buffer revealed satisfactory C45 and T70 of ≥ 70% and ≤ 45 min respectively. The MFBS for each brand laid beyond 2xSE of the postulated population MFBS. The investigated brands were of comparable quality standards and can be regarded as pharmaceutical and therapeutic equivalent. The hypoglycaemic drug effect of the drug products at the twice a day dosing could not achieve the postulated MFBS level. The method can be applied as a performance check for different brands of oral hypoglycaemic dugs emanating from the possible differences in the quality/production factors.