Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences https://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences (ISSN:&nbsp;2394-1111)</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JAMPS/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of&nbsp;Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences.&nbsp;By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US contact@journaljamps.com (Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences) contact@journaljamps.com (Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences) Fri, 26 Apr 2024 10:08:12 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.11 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Pontederia crassipes Biosynthesised Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs), Characterisation and Activity against Multidrug-Resistant Microbes https://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS/article/view/690 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> <em>Pontederia crassipes</em> (water hyacinth) has been singled out as one of the major causes of enormous economic and ecological losses to tropical water systems and habitats. Almost impossible to eradicate, the ominous species is characterized by rapid multiplication, giving rapid and extensive spread that can choke entire rivers and water bodies. However, vast, diverse bioactive secondary metabolites are found in P crassipes which exhibit an expansive assortment of antibacterial properties used in traditional medicine. The rapid emergence of Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) pathogens to common drugs is a pandemic of global proportions. Global health institutions are calling for a coordinated, global action plan to develop new biomaterials to combat the rising threat by MDR strains and improve treatment outcomes and save lives. This study proposes consumption of the water hyacinth lily species through a novel, material biosynthesis approach not only to manage the aquatic infestation but to develop advanced multifunctional, anti-microbial Silver nanoparticles through bio-reduction and capping of Silver salts targeted at MDR microbes.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> After screening for active phytoconstituents of <em>P.crassipes</em>. The Biosynthesis of Novel AgNPs mediated by phenolic, antibacterial lyophilized hydro-ethanolic extracts from P crassipes as both bioreduction and capping agents was investigated. The resultant AgNPs characteristics, toxicological profiles and the antibacterial effects on 10 common microbes including MDR bacterial strains were evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Observations and Results:</strong> TEM revealed that cubic and spherical nanometric AgNPs structures were successfully synthesized with particle size range from 10-60nm. With an average zone of inhibition of 29mm and an MIC of 6.25 µg/ml .The nanoparticles were efficacious against selected MDR strains and common infectious bacterial strains tested. In-vivo acute oral toxicity evaluations confirmed the safety of <em>P crassipes</em>.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Biogenic <em>P.crassipes</em> mediated AgNPs are feasible, safe and efficacious and have immense potential for optimization into efficient broad spectrum MDR antibacterial agents.</p> T. C Semu, J Williams , J. Cheng , I Mutingwende , J Chifamba Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS/article/view/690 Fri, 26 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Radioprotection Compliance Rules Study in Dakar's Hospitals, Senegal https://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS/article/view/691 <p>This work aims to promote greater safety in the use of X-rays in our hospitals. The effects of radiation have continued to arouse keen interest mixed with concern. Due to their ionizing power, these radiations lead to cascades of reactions in the body causing genetic mutations, cancer phenomena and even cell death, among others. We thus distinguish between threshold effects (deterministic) and random effects (stochastic). This work is a quantitative study based on a questionnaire intended for majors in radiology services in Dakar.</p> <p>&nbsp;This study was carried out in the Dakar region over a period of two (02) months from July 15, 2022 to September 15, 2022. By analyzing the results, we’ve noted that standard radiography and computed tomography are the two most frequently performed radiological examinations in all the services studied with respectively 60.9 o/o and 30.4 o/o of the radiological examinations carried out daily. It is appeared that radiation protection in radiology departments has limits. It is therefore urgent to overcome them and to encourage the development of radiation protection in parallel with the evolution of the technical platform. Compliance with the rules and regulations constitutes a requirement for the protection of people exposed to ionizing radiation. The national radiation protection authority should take steps to harmonize the control protocols for radiology department equipment for optimal monitoring of radiation protection measures. It would be important to install a maintenance unit in each health structure with a radiology department which would be under the responsibility of the national authority responsible for radiation protection.</p> <p>Sanctions are provided for in the event of breaches of laws and regulations by the Senegalese authorities.</p> EL Hadji Oumar Ndoye, Al Housseynou Diop, Serigne Moussa Badiane Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS/article/view/691 Wed, 01 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 In vitro and In vivo Studies for Screening of Anti-inflammatory, Thrombolytic and Acute Toxicological Activity in Camellia Chrysantha (Hu) Tuyama https://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS/article/view/693 <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of methanol-prepared leaves extract of<em> Camellia Chrysantha (Hu) Tuyama.</em> on several <em>in vitro </em>activities, including anti-inflammatory and thrombolytic effects. Additionally, the study aimed to assess the acute toxicological activity of the extracts in an animal model.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The research study was carried out from Nov 2023 to Feb 2024 at the Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR), Laboratory of Pharmacology, University of Asia Pacific and the Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy, as well as the Laboratory of Microbiology at Stamford University Bangladesh, Dhaka.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The methodology involved various doses of methanolic leaves extract of <em>Camellia Chrysantha (Hu) Tuyama</em>, and employed techniques such as the Inhibition of Protein Denaturation Assay for anti-inflammatory test and the clot lysis test for thrombolytic assay. The acute toxicological activity was assessed by Cinnamon oil induced toxicological and administration of acetic acid induced writhing responses in <em>Swiss albino</em> mice.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> The Inhibition of Protein Denaturation Assay test yielded findings indicating its anti-inflammatory properties against all strains used in this research. The findings from the study examining the anti-inflammatory properties indicate that <em>Chrysantha (Hu) Tuyama</em> exhibits a significant efficacy of 86.54% in inhibiting inflammation at a concentration of 1000 µg/mL. This level of efficacy is comparable to that of acetylsalicylic acid, which also has a similar efficacy of 98.54 % at the same concentration. Thrombolysis test is a controlled laboratory procedure that assesses the ability of plant extracts to dissolve blood clots. The study found that MECCL can reduce blood clots. Table 2 shows that MECCL's thrombolytic potential was 95.69%, which is much higher than the usual value of 91.304%. Our research found that MECCL did not induce any harmful effects in mice during the acute toxicity test, as determined by the toxicological assessment. No signs of illness or death were reported throughout the acute toxicity trial.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The <em>Camellia chrysantha (Hu)</em> Tuyama plant exhibits privileged qualities that could lead to the discovery of novel therapeutic substances. It has anti-inflammatory, thrombolytic, and mild acute toxicity properties. Further exploration of this plant could be beneficial. Our study results contribute to the growing body of evidence demonstrating that natural products may potentially have favourable effects on human health.</p> Mariya Alam Ayshi , Md. Mohiuddin Rahaman Rakib, Abu Jubaer Asif , Anjuman Ara Oishee , Md. Shahi Amran Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS/article/view/693 Tue, 07 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Anti-oxidant and Wound Healing Potentials of Gnetum africanum Welw and Ficus vogelii Miq Extracts https://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS/article/view/694 <p><strong>Background:</strong> <em>Gnetum africanum </em>and <em>Ficus vogelii </em>are vegetables consumed in some parts of Africa. They are used in ethno medicine for treatment of different diseases, and are particularly known to hasten wound healing. The study aimed at investigating the wound healing properties of the plants in a rat model.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The powdered leaves of the two plants were successively extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol using a Soxhlet apparatus. The crude methanol extract was screened for secondary metabolites and anti-oxidant properties. The wound healing activity was evaluated using excision wound model. Thirty healthy female Wistar albino rats (150-200 kg) were used for the experiment and randomized into 5% extract + ointment, 3.5% extract + ointment, simple ointment, and gentamicin treatment groups. The ointments were administered topically daily, and wound contraction was measured every alternate day. The percentage wound closure rate and histopathology of healed wound area were determined. The antioxidant activity of the plants was determined using the DPPH scavenging activity and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The methanol extracts of both plants showed the presence tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and steroids in varying amounts. The antioxidant assays revealed that the extracts of both plants had good anti-oxidant properties. Extracts of <em>Gnetum africanum</em> at 3.5% w/w and <em>Ficus vogelii</em> 5% w/w exhibited potent healing activity, eliciting 100% wound closure by day 7.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study revealed that <em>Gnetum africanum</em> and <em>Ficus vogelii </em>have wound healing properties which scientifically justifies its use for treatment of wounds traditionally and could be developed into useful drugs for wound treatment and management.</p> Morenike E. Coker, Olufunmilayo A. Adewuyi, Benjamin O. Emikpe Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS/article/view/694 Mon, 13 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Nutritional Factors, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Altered Body Composition and Various Biological Factors in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome https://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS/article/view/692 <p>Fatigue is a prevalent complaint among individuals, characterized by a decline in energy levels, mental and physical fatigue, reduced stamina, and longer recovery time following exertion. While the root cause of tiredness remains unclear, it is typically associated with illness. Although tiredness is not exclusively linked to a particular condition, mitochondrial malfunction is a common contributor to exhaustion, indicating that mitochondrial dysfunction may be a biological factor that causes fatigue. Additionally, factors such as mitochondrial energy metabolism, immunological response, and genetics can also play a role. However, the absence of a standard methodology for assessing fatigue and a limited understanding of its pathophysiology pose challenges for diagnosing fatigue in clinical settings but a detailed studies suggests a number of marginal nutritional deficiencies may have etiologic relevance. Throughout life, significant changes in body composition occur, with the most notable being a decrease in lean body mass and an increase in body fat as we age. These changes have a profound impact on the development of frailty in older adults. Frailty is a complex condition that reduces patient’s homoeostatic reserves, making them more susceptible to shocks.</p> <p>In this review, we present an overview on the mechanisms that may mediate fatigue levels, with a special focus on nutritional and vitamin supplement.</p> Yousef Rezaei Chianeh , Ali Mansouri Mehrabani , Alireza Akhavan Kharazi, Mahsa Ghaffari , Faride Asgari Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS/article/view/692 Wed, 01 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Revolutionizing Drug Discovery: The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Efficiency and Accuracy https://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS/article/view/695 <p>This study explores the transformative impact of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques, such as machine learning and deep learning, on drug discovery. It highlights the roles of Al in enhancing efficiency and precision, accelerating processes, refining outcomes, and managing large datasets. Real-world applications, like AI-driven drug screening and predictive modeling, are discussed, along with AI's potential for personalized drug discovery and ethical considerations. The current landscape and future implications of AI in drug discovery are examined, underscoring its ability to derive efficient and tailored treatment solutions.</p> Samuel Nzube Nwosu Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS/article/view/695 Wed, 05 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000