https://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS/issue/feed Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2021-11-30T09:13:41+00:00 Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences contact@journaljamps.com Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences (ISSN:&nbsp;2394-1111)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JAMPS/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of&nbsp;Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.&nbsp;</p> https://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS/article/view/30255 Phytochemical, Biochemical and Biological Evaluation of Five Herbal Bitters Sold in Pharmacy Shops in Eastern Nigeria 2021-11-30T09:13:00+00:00 S. O. Onugwu obinna.onugwu@esut.edu.ng C. O. Ezugwu U. E. Odoh A. L. Onugwu <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study investigated the phytochemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of five herbal bitters and their potential effect on body weight<strong>, </strong>lipid profile, hematology, liver and kidney functions of albino rats.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Five brands of herbal bitters (Goko Cleanser<sup>®</sup>, Ruzu Bitter<sup>®</sup>, Yoyo Bitter<sup>®</sup>, Swedish Bitter<sup>®</sup> and Beta Cleanser<sup>®</sup>) were tested for the presence of phytochemical constituents. Antimicrobial activity was evaluatedby agar diffusion method. The weights of the animals were taken before treatment, and on day 7, 14, 21 and 28 post treatments with the herbal bitters. Blood levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, PCV, haemoglobin, AST, ALT, ALP, urea and creatinine were measured.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, steroid, saponins, phenolic compounds were present while reducing sugar, amino acid and hydrogen cyanide were absent in the five bitters. All the five bitters showed moderate to potent antimicrobial activity against <em>Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Aspergillus niger</em> and <em>Candida albicans. </em>There was a significant (p&lt;0.05) decrease in body weight and a significant increase in catalase, SOD and glutathione peroxidase activities. There was also a significant reduction in total cholesterol and an increase in HDL. The PCV of the treated animals increased significantly while the haemoglobin was not affected significantly. The liver and kidney functions were not significantly altered.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on the results of this study, Goko Cleanser<sup>®</sup>, Ruzu Bitter<sup>®</sup>, Yoyo Bitter<sup>®</sup>, Swedish Bitter<sup>®</sup> and Beta Cleanser<sup>®</sup> possess antimicrobial and antioxidant properties and may help to reduce body weight and hypercholesterolemia.</p> 2021-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS/article/view/30256 In-vivo Antiplasmodial Effect of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine-Nitrofurantoin on Plasmodium berghei- Infected Mice 2021-11-30T09:13:41+00:00 Udeme O. Georgewill Festus Azibanigha Joseph festusazibanigha@gmail.com Elias Adikwu <p>Nitrofurantoin (NT) used for the treatment of urinary tract infections may have antiplasmodial activity. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) is an artemisinin based combination therapy used for the treatment of malaria. This study evaluated the antiplasmodial effect of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-nitrofurantoin (DP-NT) on mice infected with <em>Plasmodium berghei.</em> Adult Swiss albino mice (30-35 g) of both sexes were used. The mice were randomly grouped, inoculated with <em>Plasmodium</em> <em>berghei, </em>and treated orally with DP (1.7/13.7 mg/kg), NT (57.1 mg/kg) and DP-NT (1.71/13.7/ 57.1 mg/kg), respectively using curative, prophylactic and suppressive tests. The negative control was orally treated with normal saline (0.3 mL), while the positive control was orally treated with chloroquine CQ (10mg/kg). After treatment, blood samples were collected and evaluated for percentage parasitemia, inhibitions and hematological parameters. Liver samples were evaluated for histological changes. The mice were observed for mean survival time (MST). Treatment with DP-NT decreased parasitemia levels when compared to individual doses of DP and NT with significant difference observed at p&lt;0.05. DP-NT prolonged MST when compared to individual doses of DP and NT with significant difference observed at p&lt;0.05. The decrease in packed cell volume, red blood cells, hemoglobin and increase in white blood cells in parasitized mice were significantly restored by DP-NT&nbsp; when compared to individual doses of DP and NT with difference observed at p&lt;0.05. DP-NT eradicated liver <em>Plasmodium</em> parasite.&nbsp; NT remarkably increased the antiplasmodial activity of DP. DP-NT may be used for the treatment of malaria.</p> 2021-11-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##