Phytochemical Screening and In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Four Cameroonian Medicinal Plant Extracts against Bacterial and Fungal Strains Involved in Skin Lesion Infections

Bayaga Herve

Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde 1, Cameroon.

Tembe Fokunang Estella

Department of Pharmacotoxicology and Pharmacokinetics, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde 1, Cameroon.

Njinkio Borgia Nono Legrand

Department of Pharmacotoxicology and Pharmacokinetics, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde 1, Cameroon.

Ngameni Bathelemy

Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde 1, Cameroon.

Fokunang Ntungwen Charles *

Department of Pharmacotoxicology and Pharmacokinetics, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde 1, Cameroon.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Background: Infections are recurrent in the presence of external skin lesions and significantly complicate the healing process. Plant extracts are used in the management of these complications.

Objective: This study was aimed to evaluate the phytochemical composition and the in vitro antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of four Cameroonian medicinal plants.

Methods: Primary and secondary metabolites were sought and quantified in the different aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of these different plants through colorimetric tests and spectrophotometric assays. Determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration by Broth dilution methods were used to test the antimicrobial activity of different extracts of Musa paradisiaca, Ficus exasperata, Dacryodes edulis and Citrullus lanatus against five reference bacterial strains: Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeroginosa; Staphylococcus aureus; Klebsiela pneumonia, Eschericha coli and three fungal isolates: Candida Albicans; Candida parapsilosis; Candida glabrata.

Results: Alkaloids, polyphenols (flavonoids, coumarins, total tannins), carbohydrates and total proteins were present in the different plant extracts with varying levels from one plant to another and from one extract to another. However, the D. edulis extracts had the highest levels overall. All the extracts tested inhibited the visible growth of one of the bacterial or fungal strains used, with MIC values between 1.565 and 25 mg/mL for bacterial strains and equal to 25 mg/mL for fungal isolates. The MIC values obtained with the reference molecules were between 0.015 and 0.0625 µg/mL and 0.0765 and 0.306 µg/mL respectively for Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole.

Conclusion: This study indicates clear evidence supporting the traditional use of M. paradisiaca, F. exasperata, D. edulis and C. lanatus in treating skin and wound infections related to bacterial and fungal.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, medicinal plants, secondary metabolites and primary metabolites, skin infection


How to Cite

Herve , B., Estella , T. F., Legrand , N. B. N., Bathelemy , N., & Charles , F. N. (2024). Phytochemical Screening and In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Four Cameroonian Medicinal Plant Extracts against Bacterial and Fungal Strains Involved in Skin Lesion Infections. Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 26(3), 9–24. https://doi.org/10.9734/jamps/2024/v26i3673

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Gantwerker EA HD. No TitleSkin: histology and physiology of wound healing. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. Août 2011;19(3):441‑53.

F. Strodtbeck F, “Physiology of wound healing,” Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews. 2001;1(1):43–52.

Raina R, Prawez S, Verma PK, Pankaj NK, Medicinal plants and their role in Wound Healing Vet Scan. 2008;3(1):1.

Sibbald RG, Goodman L, Woo KY, Krasner DL, Smart H, Tariq G, Ayello EA, Burrell RE KD, Mayer D, Norton L SR. Special considerations in wound bed preparation 2011: An update. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2011;24:415–36. Quiz 437–8.

Tiwari R, Kumar A, Singh SK, Gangwar NK, “Skin and wound infections of animals: An overview,” Livestock Technology. 2012;2 (3):16–18.

Bahar Mummed, Ashebr Abraha,Teka Feyera, Adugna Nigusse and Solomon Assefa. In Vitro Antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants in the traditional treatment of skin and wound infections in Eastern Ethiopia. BioMed Research International. 2018;8. Article ID 1862401, Available:https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1862401

Vitale S, Colanero S, Placidi M, Di Emidio G, Tatone C, Amicarelli F, D’Alessandro AM. Phytochemistry and biological activity of medicinal plants in wound healing: An overview of current research. Molecules. 2022;27:3566. Available:https://doi.org/10.3390/ molecules27113566

Adetutu A, Morgan WA, Corcoran O, “Ethnopharmacological survey and in vitro evaluation of wound-healing plants used in South-western Nigeria,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2011;137 (1):50–56.

Bayaga Herve, Bathelemy Ngameni, Estella Achick Tembe, Mbong Grace Anih, Njinkio Nono Borgia, Charles N, Fokunang. Ethnobotanical, Ethnopharmacological Survey of herbal products of pharmaceutical importance for chronic wound management in Bankim District of Adamaoua Region of Cameroon. Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2023;25 (7):43-57. ISSN: 2394-1111.

Ayoola GA, Coker HA, Adesegun SA, Adepoju-Bello AA, Obaweya K EE. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activities of some selected medicinal plants used for malaria therapy in South western Nigeria. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2008;7(3):1019-24.

Mehta K, Patel BN JB. Phytochemical analysis of leaf extracts of Phyllanthus fraternus. Research Journal of Recent Sciences. 2013;2:12-5.

Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL RR. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol. Chem. 1951;193:265-275; Peterson GL. Determination of total protein. Methods Enzymol. 1983;91:95-121.

Singleton VL RJ. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic –phosphothungstic acid Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 1965;16:144-158

Zhishen J, Mengcheng T, Jianming W. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem .1999; 64:555-559.

Miliauskas G, Venskutonis PR, Van Beek TA. Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts. Food Chemistry.2004;85:231-237.

Ali-Rachedi F, Meraghni S, Touaibia N MS. Analyse quantitative des composés phénoliques d’une endémique algérienne Scabiosa Atropurpurea sub. Maritima L. Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège. 2018;87:13-21.

Graham HD TL. Color reaction of alkaloids with dichromate-sulfuric acid and its use for quantitative assay. J Pharm Sci. 1961;50(11):901–4.

Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute. Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically; Approved Standard—Ninth Edition. 2012;32(2):88.

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Reference method for broth dilution. Ref method broth dilution Antifung susceptibility Test yeasts Approv Stand 3th ed. 2008;28(14):0–13.

Clinical and laboratory standard institute. Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically; Approved Standard—Ninth Edition. 2012;32(2):88.

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Reference method for broth dilution. Ref method broth dilution Antifung susceptibility Test yeasts Approv Stand 3th ed. 2008;28(14):0–13.

Marius Tresor Wego Kamgaing, Marie Alfrede Mvondo, Sylviane Laure Poualeu Kamani, Stephane Minko Essono and SLWN. The Aqueous extract of dacryodes edulis (Burseraceae) leaves inhibits cell proliferation induced by estradiol on the uterus and vagina of ovariectomized female wistar rats. Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences.2020;2020: 11.

Henry O Uwumarongie, Abayomi B Akinmutola, Dickson Uwaya GIE, Abiodun M Emokpae COJ of S and P of P Pharmacognostic evaluation and toxicity studies of the leaf of Dacryodes edulis (G. Don) H. Lam (Burseraceae). 2018;5(1): 193-195.

Miguel LM, Mokondjimobe E, Okiemy-Andissa N, Diatewa M, Moukassa D, Mbenza B, Abena AA. Medicinal potentialities of Dacryodes edulis (G. Don) HJ.LAM. Literature review. International Journal of Current Research. 2017;9(12):63014-63018.

Akter MZI, S. Musa paradisiaca L, Musa sapientum L. A Phytochemical and pharmacological review. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2011;01(05):14-20.

Galani VJ. Musa paradisiaca Linn. – A Comprehensive review. Sch Int J Tradit Complement Med. 2019;2(4):45-56.

Thompson T. Falowo IPE, Clayton LL and HS. Polyphenolic content of musa acuminata and musa paradisiaca bracts: Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials. Biomedical & Pharmacology Journal. 2021;14(4):1767-1780.

Prasobh GR, Jacob Mathew, Ameena K, Abdul Vajid K, Prasanth Kumar M, Suryanarayanan J SS. Formulation and evaluation of herbal syrup used in the management of cholesterol and kidney stones., 2016;5(3):1580-1590.

Adeolu AT ED. Assessment of proximate, mineral, vitamin and phytochemical compositions of plantain (Musa paradisiaca) bract – an agricultural waste. International Research Journal of Plant Science.2013;4(7):192 -197.

Akinsanmi AO, Oboh G, Akinyemi JA AA. Assessment of the nutritional, anti-nutritional and antioxidant capacity of unripe, ripe and over ripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) peels. J Adv Res. 2015;3:63–72.

Mahmood A, Ngah N, Omar MN. Phytochemicals constituent and antioxidant activities in Musa paradisiaca flower. European Journal of Scientific Research. 2011;66(2):311-318.

Onyenekwe PC, Okereke OE, Owolewa SO. Phytochemical screening and effect of Musa paradisiaca stem extrude on rat haematological parameters. Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences. 2013;5(1):26-29.

Irabor GE, JE Ebhoaye AO. Qualitative and quantitative screening of some phytochemical compounds in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seeds cultivated in esan west local government area of edo state. International Journal of Engineering Applied Sciences and Technology. 2020;5 (1):26.

Adetutu A, Olorunnisola OS, Owoade OA. Nutritive values and antioxidant activity of Citrullus lanatus fruit extract. Food and Nutrition Sciences.2015;6:1056-1064. Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/fns.2015.611109

Siti Suhaila Harith, Muhd Harith Mazlun, Marlina Mohd Mydin, Liliwirianis Nawi RS. Studies on phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial properties of Citrullus lanatus peels. Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences. 2018;22(1): 51-156. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17576/mjas-2018-2201-19.

Kudirat Titilope Seidu OLO. Phytochemical composition and radical scavenging activities of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seed constituents. Croat. J. Food sci. Technol. 2016;8(2):83-89.

CJ Okenwa ORC, CEN. Phytochemical, proximate and total antioxidant analysis of ogbu (Ficus exasperata) and Uvuru (Anthocleista djalonensis) Healthygreen leaves. International Journal of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences. 2015;5 (2):48-53. ISSN 2222-5854.

Ajala TO, Olusola AJ, Odeku OA, ‘Antmicrobial actvity of Ficus exasperata (Vahl) leaf extract in clinical isolates and its development into herbal tablet dosage form’, Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development. 2020;4(1):8.

Jesumirhewe C, Uyi-Ohonba E OO. Comparison of the antmicrobial actvity of leaf extracts of Ficus exasperata, Boerhaavia diffusa and Ageratum conyzoides. J Plant Biol Crop Res. 2020; 3(1):1021.

Joseph S. Ajayi BOO and MKO. Effect of Ficus exasperata VAHL Extracts on bacterial isolates associated with HIV infection. Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2020;13:607-613. ISSN 1995-6673.

Chinelo Anthonia Ezeabara, Samson Ifeanyi Nwizugbe CUO. Phytochemical Composition and In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf, Pulp and Seed of Dacryodes edulis (G. Don) H. J. Lam. Open Science Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. 2020;7(1):7-12.

Ogboru RO, PL Okolie LA. “Phytochemical screening and medicinal potentials of the bark of Dacryodes edulis (G. Don) HJ Lam,” International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry. 2015;2(5):3.

RR. Ano Aka, Koffi NE, Adima AA, KP N’DA A, L Anin A. “Composition biochimique et phytochimique des tourteaux des fruits du safoutier (Dacryodes edulis) de Côte d’Ivoire,” International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences. 2018;12(6):2535–2546.

Dobgima John Fonmboh, Ejoh Richard Abah, Tembe Estella Fokunang, Bayaga Herve, Gerald Ngo Teke, Ngono Mballa Rose, Njinkio Nono Borgia, Lovet Benyella Fokunang, Banin Nyuyki Andrew, Nubia Kaba NBFCN. An overview of methods of extraction, isolation and characterization of natural medicinal plant products in improved traditional medicine research. Article no. AJRIMPS.61961 ISSN: 2457-0745. Asian J Res Med Pharm Sci. 2020; 9(2):1-57.

Kamoldeen Abiodun Ajijolakewu, Abiodun Saheed Ayoola, Tariq Oluwakunmi Agbabiaka, Folashade Rahmat Zakariyah, Nike Risikat Ahmed OJO and AS. A review of the ethnomedicinal, antimicrobial, and phytochemical properties of Musa paradisiaca (plantain). Bulletin of the National Research Centre. 2021;45:86. Available:https://doi.org/10.1186/s42269-021-00549-3.

OMS. Principes méthodologiques généraux pour la recherche et l’évaluation relatives à la médecine traditionnelle. Document WHO/EDM/TRM/2000.1. Genève. 2000:87.

Amise AF, Lennox JA ABE. Antimicrobial potential and phytochemical analysis of Dacryodes edulis against selected clinical bacterial isolates. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. 2016;8(11):1795-1800. ISSN: 0975-4873.

Negut I, Grumezescu V, Grumezescu AM. Treatment Strategies for Infected Wounds. 2018;1–23.

Asuquo EG, Udobi CE. Antibacterial and toxicity studies of the ethanol extract of Musa paradisiaca leaf. Cogent Biology. 2016;2(1):1219248.

Alisi CS, Nwanyanwu CE, Akujobi CO, Ibegbulem CO. Inhibition of dehydrogenase activity in pathogenic bacteria isolates by aqueous extracts of Musa paradisiaca (var. sapientum). African Journal of Biotechnology. 2008;7(12): 1821-1825.

Ahmad I, Beg AZ. Antimicrobial and phytochemical studies on 45 Indian medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant human pathogens. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2001;74(2):113-123.

Karadi RV, Shah A, Parekh P, Azmi P. Antimicrobial activities of Musa paradisiaca and Cocos nucifera. International Journal of Research in pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences. 2011; 2(1): 264-267.

Shoba JS and FG. Assessment of antimicrobial efficacy of Citrullus lanatus methanolic seed extract. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2014;6(12):640-643. ISSN:0975-7384.

Upe Francisca Babaiwa, Osayemwenre Erharuyi AF and J, Akerele. Antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2017;16 (7):1631-1636. ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic).