Evaluation of Toxic Effect of D-alletrin Based Mosquito’s Coil on the Lungs and Selected Haematological Parameters of Adult Wistar Rats
Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences,
The effect of inhaling mosquito coil smoke on the haematology and histology of rat’s lungs was studied. Mosquito coils while slowly burning emit smoke containing one or more insecticides, each coil burns for several hours and are used in close proximity to persons requiring protection against mosquitoes in order to prevent malaria, a disease of wide distribution. This study is aimed at determining the effects of mosquito coil on lungs of adult wistar rats. A total of 16 adult wistar rats were used in this study weighing 100g – 200g. They were randomly divided into four groups of four rats each. Rats in group 1 served as control and received only food and distilled water; while the experimental groups II – IV were exposed to mosquito coil smoke for 1 hour, 2 hours and 3 hours respectively for a period of 28 days. At the end of the experimental period, blood was collected from each rat through ocular puncture for blood analysis. The rats were sacrificed with the lungs harvested and fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological analysis. The body weight of the exposed groups observed showed insignificant decrease when compared with the control group. The organ weight of lungs showed significant increase when compared to the control group. Haematological analysis for blood obtained revealed a significant (p<0.05) increase in Hb, PCV, RBC and WBC counts in all exposure groups when compared with the control group. Histological analysis of the lungs showed severe hemorrhage and severe inflammation of the lungs. Results from this study demonstrates that mosquito coil smoke not only challenges the immune system but also affects the blood oxygen regulation level through damage in the lungs.
- haematological parameters
- packed cell volume
- mosquito coil
How to Cite
Mulla MS, Thavara U, Tawatsin A, Kong-Ngamsuk W, Champoosri J. Mosquito burden and impact on the poor; measures and costs for personal protection in some, communities in Thailand. Journal of American Mosquito Control Association. 2001;17:53-159.
Krieger RI, Dinoff TM, Zhang X. Octachlorodipropyl ether (s-2) mosquito coils are inadequately studied for residential use in Asia and illegal in the United States. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2003;111(12):1439-1442.
Liu WK, Wong MH, Mui YL. Toxic effects of mosquito coil (a mosquito repellent) smoke on rats: I. Properties of the mosquito coil and its smoke. Toxicology letters. 1987;39(2-3):223-230.
Cheng KC, Cahill DS, Kasai H, Nishimura S, Loeb LA. 8-Hydroxyguanine, an abundant form of oxidative DNA damage, causes GT and AC substitutions. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1992:267(1):166-172.
Chang ES, Keller R, Chang SA. Quantification of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone by ELISA in hemolymph of the lobster, Homarus americanus, following various stresses. General and comparative endocrinology. 1998;111(3):359-366.
Chang JY, Lin JM. Aliphatic aldehydes and allethrin in mosquito coil smoke. Chemosphere. 1998;36:617-624.
Azizi BHO, Henry RL. The effects of indoor environmental factors on respiratory illness in primary school children in Kuala Lumpur. International Journal of Epidemiology. 1998;20(1):144-150.
Fagbule D, Ekanem EE. Some environmental risk factors for childhood asthma: A case-control study. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics. 1994;14(1):15-19.
Koo LC, Ho JHC. Mosquito coil smoke and respiratory health among Hong Kong Chinese: Results of three epidemiological studies. Indoor Environment. 1994;3(5):304-310.
Vinita C. Novel mosquito control: A natural approach to reducing and repelling mosquito populations. Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science. 2017;15(2):47-56.
Parker MM, Shelhamer JH, Bacharach SL, Green MV, Natanson C, Frederick TM, Damske BA, Parrillo JE. Profound but reversible myocardial depression in patients with septic shock. Annals of Internal Medicine.1984;100(4):483-490.
Ishmael J, Litchfield MH. Chronic toxicity and carcingenic evaluation of permethrin in rats and mice. Toxicological Sciences.1998;11(1):308-322.
Garba SH, Adelaiye LYAB, Mshelia PW. Histopathological and biochemical changes in rats’ kidney following exposure to a Pyrethroid based mosquito coil. Journal of Applied Sciences Research. 2007;3(12):1788-1793.
Schoenig GP. Mammalian toxicology of Pyrethrum extract. In pyrethrum flower: production, chemistry, toxicology and uses, Casida, JE and Quistad GB (Eds.). Oxford University Press, New York, 1995;249-257.
Saka W, Akhigbe RE, Azeez MO, Babatunde TR. Effect of pyrethroid insecticide exposure on haematological and haemostatic profiles in rats. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2011;14(22):1024-7.
Taiwo Idowu E, Aimufua OJ, Yomi-Onilude E, Akinsanya B, Adetoro Otubanjo O. Toxicological effects of prolonged and intense use of mosquito coil emission in rats and its implications on malaria control. Revista de biologia tropical. 2013;61(3):1463-1473.
Rajeswary M, Govindarajan M, Alharbi NS, Kadaikunnan S, Khaled JM, Benelli G. Zingiber cernuum (Zingiberaceae) essential oil aseffective larvicide and oviposition deterrent on sixmosquito vectors,with little non-target toxicity on four aquatic mosquito predators. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2018:25;10307–10316.
Rizvi SAH, Ling S, Xinnian Zeng X. Seriphidium brevifolium essential oil: A novel alternative to synthetic insecticides against the dengue vector Aedes albopictus. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2020:27(25):31863-31871.
Govindarajan M, Mathivanan T, Elumalai K, Krishnappa K, Anandan A. Ovicidal and repellent activities of botanical extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine.2011:1(1):43–48.
Abstract View: 169 times
PDF Download: 73 times