Main Article Content
Aim: Evaluate the protective effects of palm oil on renal parameters after dichlorvos toxicity in albino rats.
Study Design and Methodology: The study consisted of 3 phases: The acute study which lasted for 24 hours, the sub-acute study which lasted for 14 days and the sub chronic study which lasted for 30 days. The design and treatment pattern is shown below. Phase 1: Acute Study. Group 1: No DDVP, No palm oil for 24 hours (Negative control), Group 2: 30 mg/kg of DDVP without palm oil (positive control), Group 3: 30 mg/kg of DDVP and 100 mg/kg palm oil for 24 hours (treatment group). Phase 2: Sub-Acute (14 days) Study. Group 4: No DDVP, No palm oil for 14 days (Negative control), Group 5: 10 mg/kg of DDVP without palm oil daily for 14 days (positive control), Group 6: 10 mg/kg of DDVP and 100 mg/kg of palm oil daily for 14 days (positive control). Phase 3: Sub-Chronic (30 days) Study. Group 7: No DDVP, No palm oil for 30 days (Negative control), Group 8: 10 mg/kg of DDVP without palm oil daily for 30 days (positive control), Group 9: 10 mg/kg of DDVP and 100 mg/kg palm oil daily for 30 days (treatment group). All administration was done orally. After the period of treatments, the rats were sacrificed after 18 hours of fast. Whole blood samples (5 mls) were collected into lithium heparin bottle and spun at 3500 rpm for 5 minutes to obtain plasma samples. Samples obtained were used for the determination of Na+, K+, HCO3, urea, and creatinine while renal tissues obtained were used for histopathological examinations.
Results: Significantly higher values were seen in urea in the dichlorvos treated rats over a period of 24 hours, 14 days, and 30 days as compared to rats co-treated with palm oil and the control. Creatinine indicated significantly higher over a period of 24 hours while non-significant increases were observed in the dichlorvos treated rats over a period of 14 days and 30 days. More so, significantly higher values were seen in potassium in the dichlorvos treated rats over a period of 24 hours and 14 days, while significantly higher values in potassium were seen after period of 30 days as compared to rats co-treated with palm oil and the control. Sodium and chloride did not indicate significant difference over the period of 24 hours, 14 days, and 30 days. Histological examination of the renal tissue indicated structural distortions dichlorvos treated rats over a period of 24 hours, 14 days and 30 days while significant improvements in the structural integrity of the kidney were observed in rats co-treated with palm oil.
Conclusion: Results obtained indicated that palm oil showed a protective effect in ameliorating the nephrotoxicity induced by dichlorvos as shown by the histological examination and decreased values of creatinine and urea as well as potassium in palm oil treated rats.
Chedi BAZ, Aliyu M. Effect and management of acute dichlorvos poisoning in wistar rats. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2010;3(2):1–3.
Lotti M. Clinical toxicology of anticholinesterase agents in humans. In: Krieger R, Editor. Heyes’ Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. 3rd Edition. California: Elsevier; 2010.
Michael E, Nick AB, Peter E, Andrew HD. Management of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Lancet. 2008;16(3): 597–607.
Eze JN, Ndu IK, Edelu BO. Teenage organophosphate insecticide poisoning: An ugly trend in Enugu, Nigeria. Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. 2018;30(1):99-108.
Okeniyi JA, Lawal OA. Accidental poisoning with otapia-pia: A local organophosphate-containing rodenticide: A case report Nigeria of Medical Practice. 2007;5(2):100-101.
Razwiedani LL, Rautenbach PGD. Epidemiology of organophosphate poisoning in the Tshwane District of South Africa. Environmental Health Insights. 2017;11:1-4.
Musa U, Hati S, Mustapha A, Magaji G. Dichlorvos concentrations in locally formulated pesticide (Otapiapia) utilized in North Eastern Nigeria. Science Research Essays. 2010;5(10):49–54.
Kora SA, Doddamani GB, Halagali GR, Vijayamahantesh SN, Boke U. Socio-demographic profile of the organophosphorus poisoning cases in Southern India. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2011;5:953-956.
Budin BS, Han JK, Jayusman AP, Taib SI, Ghazali RA, Mohamed J. Antioxidant activity of tocotrienol rich fraction prevents fenitrothion-induced renal damage in rats. Journal of Toxicology and Pathology. 2013;26:111-118.
Noshad H, Ansarin K, Ardalan MR, Ghaffari AR, Safa J, Nezami N. Respiratory failure in organophosphate insecticide poisoning. Saudi Medical Journal. 2007;28:405-407.
Ugwu GIM, Okperi BO, Ugwu EN, Okolugbo NE. Childhood poisoning in Warri, Niger Delta, Nigeria: A ten year retrospective study. African Journal Primary Health Care and Family Medicine. 2012;4:1-5.
Eddleston M, Buckley NA, Eyer P, Dawson AH. Management of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Lancet. 2008;96(12):597-607.
Edelu BO, Odetunde O, Eke C, Uwaezuoke N, Oguonu T. Accidental poisoning in Enugu, South-East, Nigeria. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. 2016;6:168-171.
Reeves JB, Weihrauch JL. Consumer and Food Economics Institute. Composition of foods: Fats and oils. Agriculture Handbook 8-4. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration. 1979;4:53-75.
Elekima I, Nwachuku EO, Nduka N. Pilot and acute toxicity studies on tartrazine in albino rats. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research. 2017;4(10):113-117.
Patton CJ, Crounch SR. Spectrophometric and kinetic investigation of the Berthelot’s reaction for the determination of Amonnia. Analytical Chemistry. 1977;49(3):464- 469.
Vaishya R, Arora S, Singh B, Mallika V. Modification of Jaffe’s kinetic method decreases bilirubin interference: A preliminary report. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry. 2010;25(1):64–66.
Buck RP, Linder E. Recommendations for nomenclature of ion-selective electrode. Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry. 1994;66(12):2527-2536.
Uroko IR, Uchenna NO, Achi N, Agbafor A, Egba IS, Orjiakor AC. Effects of the aqueous extract of Elaeis guineensis fruit on the lipid profile and kidney function indices of male wistar albino rats. Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2019;12(1): 5–16.
Achuba FI, Ogwumu MA. Possible protective role of palm oil and beef liver on the kidney and liver of wistar albino rats fed disel-contaminated diet. Nigerian Society of Experimental Bilology. 2014;26(4):124–129.
Khan RM, Ahsan A, Siddiqui S, Siddiqui AW. Tocotrienol have a nephroprotective action against lipid-induced renal dysfunction in rats. Journal of Renal Failure. 2015;37(1):136-143.
Olatunde O, Fabian VE, Bukola A, Ganiyu OA. Renal corpuscle was protected from Dichlorvos induced morphological alterations in rats. International Journal of Morphology. 2014;32(2):475-480.
Tan QMS, Chiew Y, Ahmad B, Kadir AK. Tocotrienol-rich vitamin E from palm oil (Tocovid) and its effect in diabetes and diabetic nephropathy: A pilot phase II clinical trial. Nutrients. 2018;10(9):1315.
Imafidon KE, Okunrobo LO. Effects of some edible oils on renal function in rats. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioresources. 2011;8(2).
Ekpo GI, Johnson JI, Hemen TJ, Odey MO, Ekam VS. Effect of chronic consumption of red palm oil on certain biochemical parameters and organs weight of albino rats. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Science and Technology. 2012;2(2):44-49.