In-vivo Anti-typhoid Activities of Ethanol Stem Bark Extract of Bridelia ferruginea (Wild) in Albino Rats Infected with Salmonella typhi

Main Article Content

Ebenezer Oluyemi Dada
Busayo Temitope Akinyele


Aims: To study the In-vivo anti-typhoid activities of ethanol stem bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea in albino rats infected with Salmonella typhi.

Study Design: Experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. Between January, 2019 and June, 2019.

Methodology: Fresh stem bark of Bridelia ferruginea were collected, dried, powered and extracted using 70% ethanol. Twenty – seven rats of same age between 90 -120 g in weight were selected and divided into 9 groups containing three each. The infectivity dose (ID) was determined with the clinical S. typhi. After which the rats were infected and orally administered various standard doses of the B. ferruginea stem bark extract (50-5000 mg/kg) accordingly for 7 days. During the treatment period, the fecal samples were collected to monitor the ability of the extract to reduce the fecal shedding of S. typhi. Also, the rats were weighed daily to establish the effect of treatment on their metabolism.

Results: Ethanol extract of B. ferruginea Stem bark at concentrations of 50 mg/ml – 100 mg/ml, didn’t produce any zone of inhibition but from 300-5000mg/ml produce zone of inhibition (ZI) at 2.00-18.33 mm (P< 0.05) on culture of clinical S. typhi isolate and on typed S. typhi isolate zones of inhibitions were seen at concentrations 50mg/ml-5000mg/ml, it produced ZI of 8.00 – 26.19 mm(P< 0.05). Minimum inhibitory concentration of the ethanol extract on the clinical S. typhiis 300mg/ml while on the typed isolate the minimum inhibitory concentration of the ethanol extract was 2600 mg/ml on ethanol extract respectively. The MBC for the two S. typhi isolates were 300 mg/ml and 1000 mg/ml respectively. The in-vivo investigation showed the ethanol extract of B. ferruginea stem bark on S. typhi colony forming units per ml (cfu/ml) of suspensions of faeces of infected rats and treated with the ethanol extract of B. ferruginea stem bark decreased significantly (P< 0.05) as the days of the treatment increased while the cfu/ml of the infected but untreated group significantly (P< 0.05) increased. There were no significant (P< 0.05) difference between weights of S. typhi un-infected, infected rats treated with Ciprofloxacin and ethanol extract of B. ferruginea stem bark but weight of the untreated group significantly (P< 0.05) decreased. Preliminary phytochemical screening of stem bark of Bridelia ferruginea ethanol extract revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides and terpenoid were pharmacological importance.

Conclusion: The in-vivo anti- typhoid activity of stem-bark ethanol extract of Bridelia ferruginea was found to be relatively safe against Salmonella typhi.

Bridelia ferruginea, in-vivo, ethanol, stem-bark

Article Details

How to Cite
Dada, E. O., & Akinyele, B. T. (2020). In-vivo Anti-typhoid Activities of Ethanol Stem Bark Extract of Bridelia ferruginea (Wild) in Albino Rats Infected with Salmonella typhi. Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 22(5), 10-20.
Original Research Article


Fatemeh Jamshidi-Kia, Zahra Lorigooini, Hossein Amini-Khoei. Medicinal plants: Past history and future perpective. Journal Herbmed Pharmacol. 2018;7(1):1-7.

Burkil HM. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. The Royal Botanic Garden, Kew.1994;2:636.

Bakoma B, Eklu-Gadegbeku K, Berké BA, Agbonon A, Aklikokou K, Gbeassor M. Chemical components and effect on streptozotocin induced diabetes of Bridelia ferruginea benth root bark ethyl acetate fraction. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences. 2015;6(1):843-853.

Adeleye AO, Oloyede OI, Bolarinwa TO, Adebayo OA. Inhibitory effects of aqueous extract of Brideliaferruginea stem bark on Iron (II) Sulphate - Induced Oxidative Stress in Brain and Liver of Albino Wistar Rats. Journal of Applied Life Sciences International. 2017;14(2):1-7.

Ahn K. The worldwide trend of using botanical drugs and strategies for development global drugs. BMB Reports. 2017;50(3):111–116.

World Health Organisation, Food Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations and World Organisation for Animal Health – W.H.O/FAO/OIE. Expert Workshop on Nonhuman Antimicrobial Usage and Antimicrobial Resistance: Scientific Assessment. 2003;1-5.

Kwesi Prah Thomford, Ronald Yeboah, Ama Kyeraa Thomford, Dominic Adotey Edoh, Merlin Lincoln Kwao Mensah, Alfred Ampomah Appiah. A Retrospective Clinical Study on the Effectiveness of the Aqueous Leaf Extract of Brideliaferrugenia (Benth) in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus. International Journal of Herbal Medicine. 2015;2(5):43-45.

Ong SY, Pratap CB, Wan X, Hou S, Rahman AYA, Saito JA, Alam M. The genomic blueprint of Salmonella enterica subspecies entericaserovar Typhi Pstx-12. Standards in Genomic Sciences. 2013;7: 483-496.

Alba S, Bakker MI, Hatta M, Scheelbeek PFD, Dwiyanti R, Usman R, et al. Risk factors of typhoid infection in the Indonesian archipelago. PLoS One. 2016; 13(3):1-9.

Darton TC, Zhou L, Blohmke CJ, Jones C, Waddington CS, Baker S, et al. Blood culture - PCR to optimise typhoid fever diagnosis after controlled human infection identifies frequent asymptomatic cases and evidence of primary bacteraemia. J Infect. 2017;74:358–366.

Dahiya S, Sharma P, Kumari B, Pandey S, Malik R, Manral N, et al. Characterization of ntimicrobial resistance in Salmonellae during 2014–2015 from four centres across IndiaAn ICMR antimicrobial resistance surveillance network report. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2017;35:61.

Yunana BT, Guiyi JC, Bukar BB. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of antibacterial activity of Brideliaferrugine extracts on some clinical isolates. J. Phytopharmacol. 2018;7(4):392-398.

Faleye OS, Dada EO. Effects of ethanol extract of unripe Annona muricata (l.) fruits onthe haematological and histopathological parameters in Swiss albino rats infected with Salmonella typhi. British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2016;9(1):1-13.

Cheesbrough M. District laboratory practice in Tropical countries. 2nd edition, Cambridge University Press, UK. 2014; 434.

Khanam F, Sayeed MA, Choudhury FK, Sheikh A, Ahmed D, Goswami D, Hossain ML, Brooks A, Calderwood SB, Charles RC, Cravioto A, Ryan ET, Qadri F. Typhoid fever in young children in Bangladesh: Clinical findings, antibiotic susceptibility pattern and immune responses. PLoS. Negl. Trop. Dis. 2015;9(4):e0003619.

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003619 8

Reddy YRR, Lokanatha O, Ratnam KSVP, Reddy CS, Naga Raju I, Reddy CD. Acute and sub acute toxicity of Moringa oleifera stem bark extract in Swiss albino mice. Intl. J. Life Sci. Biotechnol. & Pharma Res. 2013;2(4):73-84.

Dada EO, Komolafe OI. In vivo evaluation of the inhibitory effects of Ocimum gratissimum on Salmonella typhi. Intl. J. Pharm. & Biol. Res. 2013;4(4):185-191

Aina VO, Abdulsalami MS, Ibrahim MB, Adejo GO, Audu G. Comparative antibacterial study of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Annona muricata. Journal of Natural Sciences Research. 2016;6(3):141-146.

Harbourne N, Marete E, Jacquier JC, O ’Riordan D. stability of phytochemicals as sources of anti-inflammatory, nutraceuticals in beverages. A review. Food Research International Journal. 2013;50(16):481-487.

Vinha AF, Soares MO. Phytochemical characterization and radical scavenging activity of aqueous extracts of medicinal plants from Portugal. European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2012;2(4):335-347.

Kunle Oluyemisi Folasade, Egharevba Henry Omoregie. Chemical consistuents and biological activity of medicinal plants used for the managements of sickle cell disease: A review. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2013;7(48):3452-3476.

Dada-Adegbola HO, Oluwatoba OA, Adebiyi OE, Odikagbue AN. In-vitro evidence of anti-infective activity of crude aqueos extract obtained by boiling ripe stem bark of Bridelia ferruginea Benth. Joural of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy. 2010;2(4):43-48.

Owoseni AA, Ayanbamji TA, Ajayi YO, Ewegbenro IB. Antimicrobial and phytochemical analysis of leaves and bark extracts from Bridelia ferruginea. African Journal of Biotechnology.2010;9(7):1031-1036.

Ndam IM, Mih AM, Fongid AG, Tening AS, Tonjock RK, Enang JE, Fujii Y. Phytochemical screening of the bioactive compounds in twenty Cameroonian medicinal plants. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2014;3(12):768-778.

Shyamala Gowri S, Vasantha K. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of Syzygium cumini L. (Myrtaceae) leaves extracts. International Journal of Phramaceutical Research. 2010;2(5):1569-1573.

Olanipekun Mary K, Adedeji Damilola E, Kayode Joshua, David O. Moses, Adewusi Damilare. Phytochemical Analysis and Anti- Microbial Effects of Alstonia boonei (De Wild), Bridelia ferruginea (Benth), Eucalyptus tereticornis (Dehnh), Terminalia schimperiana (Hochst) and Polyalthia longifolia (Sonn) Thwaites. International Journal of Biomedical Papers. 2016;1:5-12.

Alabi OA, Haruna MT, Anokwuru CO, Jegede T, Abia H, Okegbe VU, Esan BE. Comparative studies on antimicrobial properties of extract of fresh and dried leaves of Carica papaya (L.) on clinical bacterial and fungal isolates from clinical samples in Riyadh area. Europ. Sci. J. 2015;11(6):136-143.

Adetunji LK. Great Secret of Nature. Natural Links Centre. 1999;19-23.

Oskay M, Oskay D, Kalyoncu. Activity of some plant extracts against multi-drug resistant human pathogens. Iranian J. Pharma. Res. 2009;8(4):293-300.

Adeyi AO, Jinadu AM, Arojojoye OA, Alao OO, Ighodaro OM, Adeyi OE. In-vivo and in-vitro antibacterial activities of Momordica charantia on Salmonella typhi and its effect on liver function in typhoid-infected rats. J. Pharmacog and Phytother. 2013;5(11): 183-188.

Taylor L. Technical data report for graviola (A. muricata) In: The healing power of rainforest herbs. Sage Press Inc. Austin; 2005.

Patel D, Desai S, Devkar R, Ramachandran AV. Acute and sub- chronic toxicological evaluation of hydromethanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum L. Seeds. EXCLI Journal. 2012;11:566575.

Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. Questions and Answers: Sickness caused by E. coli 0157: H7; 2006. info/Escherichia coli-g.htm

Nweke CN, Ibiam OFA. Pre and post harvest fungi associated with the soft rot of the fruit of Annona muricata and their effects on the nutrient content of the pulp. Am. J. Food & Nutri. 2012;2(4):78- 85.