Prophylactic and Therapeutic Effect of Aqueous Stem Extract of Costus afer on Lipids and Atherogenic Profile of Albino Rats in Acetaminophen Induced Liver Toxicity

Main Article Content

L. L. Nwisah
T - E. G. Davies
E. S. Bartimaeus


Background: Medicinal plants are widely used in Nigeria because they are believed to be effective in the treatment of various medical conditions and are also easily accessable with minimal side effect.

Aim: This study evaluates the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of different doses (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight) of Costus afer on lipid profile of 50 male albino rats.

Methodology: The research study was divided into 2 phases with 25 rats used for each phases. The 25 rats used for each phase were randomly selected into 5 groups with each group containing 5 rats. The rats used for the prophylactic phase were induced with 800 mg/kg body weight paracetamol for liver toxicity after administration of the various concentrations of aqueous stem extract of C. afer for 28 days while those used during the therapeutic phase were administered with the various concentrations of aqueous stem extract of C. afer following confirmation of liver toxicity using 800 mg/kg body weight acetaminophen. The effect of the aqueous extract was assessed by measuring the serum concentration of total cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein using Randox reagent, while low density lipoprotein was calculated from the other parameters. Atherogenic ratios were also computed. The result obtained from the experiment was subjected to statistical analysis using Graph pad prism version 5.3 and values were considered significant at p<0.05.

Results: Total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL levels were significantly (p<0.05) reduced and HDL significantly increased in the treatment groups (prophylactic and therapeutic phases) compared to the positive control. When both phases were compared, total cholesterol and triglycerides showed significant (p<0.05) difference in concentration in groups fed with 400 mg/kg, 200 mgkg while LDL-C showed significant (p<0.05) variation between the two phases only at 400 mg/kg body weight. The extracts were also found to significantly (p<0.05) reduce the atherogenic status of the albino rats in both phases of treatment and between each treatment phase.

Conclusion: Findings from this study suggest that Costus afer possesses the ability to regulate paracetamol induced dyslipidaemia and improve the anti-atherogenic status of treated albino rats.

Costus afer, lipoproteins, cardiovascular disease, albino rats, atherogenic indexes

Article Details

How to Cite
Nwisah, L. L., Davies, T.- E. G., & Bartimaeus, E. S. (2020). Prophylactic and Therapeutic Effect of Aqueous Stem Extract of Costus afer on Lipids and Atherogenic Profile of Albino Rats in Acetaminophen Induced Liver Toxicity. Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 22(4), 16-24.
Original Research Article


Seeff LB, Curto TM, Szabo G. Herbal product use by persons enrolled in the hepatitis C Antiviral Long-Term Treatment Against Cirrhosis (HALT-C) Trial, Hepatology. 2008,47(2):605–612.

Godswill NA, Osillesi FO, Olugbenga AE. Anti-inflammatory activities of Costus afer Ker Gaul-hexane leaf fraction in Arthritis rat. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2014; 543-551.

Okwu DE. Phytochemicals and vitamin content of indigeneous spices of South Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Sustanable Agricultural. Environment. 2004;6:30- 34.

Oreagba IA, Kazeem AO, Amachree M. Herbal medicine used among Africans. British Medical College of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2015;4(1):213– 219.

Hostettmann K, Marston A, Ndjoko K, Jean-Luc Wolfender JL. The potential of African plants as a source of drugs. Current Organic Chemistry. 2000;4:973-1010

Omokhua GE. Medicinal and Socio-cultural Importance of Costus afer (Ker Grawl) in Nigeria. African Research Review. 2011;5: 282-287.

Ayakeme T, Essien E, Ogbomade R. Protective effect of Costusafer on lipid profile and hepatic damage in damage in ethanol-induced liver cirrhosis in rats. International Journal of Biochemistry Research and Review. 2015;6(2):53-61.

Asmare B. Farm animal welfare and handling in the tropics: The Ethiopia case advances in agriculture. 2014;1-7.

Article ID: 428129.

Tebekeme O. Paracetamol and hydrogen peroxide-induced tissue alterations are reduced by costusafer extract. American Journal of Research Medicine in Medical Sciences. 2018;2(2):66-72.

Erhihie EO, Ekene NE, Ajaghana DL. Guideline on dosage calculation and stock solution prepariton in experimental Animals studies. Journal of Natural Science Research. 2014;4(18):2225-2921.

Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. (1972) Estimation of the concentration of low density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma without use of preparative ultra centrifuge. Clinical Chemistry. 1972;18: 499-502.

Dobiasova M. Atherogenic index of plasma [Log(Triglycerides/HDLCholesterol)]: Theoretical and practical implications. Clinical Chemistry. 2004;50:1113-1115.

Stampfer MJ, Sacks FM, Salvini S, Willett WC, Hennekens CH. A prospective study of cholesterol, apolipoproteins and the risk of myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine. 1991;325:373-381.

Ridker PM, Stampfer MJ, Rifai N. Novel risk factors for systemic atherosclerosis: A comparison of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, homocysteine lipoprotein(a), and standard cholesterol screening as predictors of peripheral arterial disease. Journal of American Medical Association. 2001;285:2481-2485.

Brehm A, Pfeiler G, Pacini G, Vierhapper H, Roden M. Relationship between Serum Lipoprotein Ratios and Insulin Resistance in Obesity. Clinical Chemistry. 2004;50: 2316-2322.

Kamoru AA, Japhet OM, Adetunji AD, Musa MA, Hammed OO, Akinlawon AA, Abdufatah OA, Taofik AA, Kabiru AA, Roji SM. Castelli risk index, atherogenic index of plasma and atherogenic coefficient: Emerging risk predictors of cardiovascular disease in hiv-treated patients. Saudi Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017;1101-1110.
DOI: 10.21276/sjmps.2017.3.10.15

Genest J, Frohlich J, Fodor G, McPherson R. The working group on hypercholesterolemia and other dyslipidemias. Recommendations for the management of dyslipidemia and the prevention of cardiovascular disease: 2003 update. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2003;169:921–924.

Mittal DK, Joshi D, Shukia S. Protective effects of Polygonum bistort (Linn.) and its active principle against acetaminophen-induced toxicity in rats. Asian Journal of Experimental Biology and Science. 2010; 1:951-958.

Dahlin DC, Miwa GT, Lu AY, Nelson SD. N-acetyl-P-benzoquinone imine: a cytochrome P-450-mediated oxidation product of acetaminophen. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. 1984; 81:1327-1331.

Nelson SD. Molecular mechanisms of the hepatotoxicity caused by acetaminophen. Seminar of Liver Diseases. 1990;10:267-278.

Mitchell JR, Jollen DJ, Potter WZ, Giletten JR, Brodie BB. Acetaminophen-inducal hepatic necrosis. IV Protective role of glutathione. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Experimental Therapy, 1973;187(1):211 – 217.

Hinson JA, Monks TJ, Hong M, Highet RJ, Pohl LR. 3-(glu-tathion-S-yl) acetaminophen: A biliary metabolite of acetaminophen. Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 1982;10:47-50.

Amaechi EC, Ohaeri CC, Ukpai OM. Effect of lipid profile in albino rat. Journal of Plant Research. 2013;7:89-91.

Kolovou GD, Anagnostopoulou KK, Cokkino DV. Pathology of dyslipidaemia in the metabolic syndrome. Post Graduate Medical Journal. 2005;81(956):358- 366.

Bonetti PO, Holmes DR, Lerman A, Barsness GW. Enhanced external counterpulsation for ischemic heart disease: what’s behind the curtain? Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2003;41(11):1918-1925.

Njoku UO, Nwodo OFC, Ogugofor A. Cardioprotective potential of methanol extract of Costus afer leaf on carbon tetrachloride-induced cardiotoxicity in albino rats. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care. 2017;9(2):51-58.