Main Article Content
Aim: To determine the concentration of Ochratoxin A and Fumonisin B1 mycotoxins in herbal medications available in markets in Ebonyi State.
Study Design: This is a cross-sectional study designed to determine the levels of Ochratoxin A and Fumonisin B1 mycotoxins in herbal traditional medications selected from vendor dealers. One hundred and fourteen (114) herbal medication samples were selectively obtained from local market and stores in Ebonyi state using a multistage random sampling technique.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at Abakaliki, Ezza-North, Afikpo North, Ohaukwu, Ikwo and Ebonyi metropolises. This study lasted for 12 months.
Methodology: One hundred and fourteen (114) herbal medication samples examined, fifty-seven (57) each of herbal traditional medicine samples, were selectively analysed for the presence of Ochratoxin A and Fumonisin B1 mycotoxins respectively together with the controls. Mycotoxins occurrence and levels were determined using lateral flow immunoassay technique. The data were presented as percentage, mean ± standard deviation. All data were analysed by one sample t-test and descriptive statistics and statistical significant was set at P ≤ 0.05.
Results: The content of ochratoxin A was statistically significant different (P < 0.05) compared to a test value of 5 µg/L (ppb) for all the herbal medications. The concentration in Goodswill, Divine roots, Zaram pile, African Iba, Akwasa and Restorative Tonic herbal medications were significantly higher when compared to 5 µg/L (ppb). Contrary, the presence of this mycotoxin in Goko mixture was not detected. The contamination with Ochratoxin A was recorded in 51(89.47%) out of 57 examined samples of herbal medicine. The highest concentration of Ochratoxin A was found in Goodswill (23.66±3.51 µg/L (ppb) followed by restorative tonic (22.67±2.52 µg/L (ppb).In addition, examination of fumonsin mycotoxin content in the reorder as studied herbal medications. showed that the highest concentration was found in Ukwara (634.33±8.00 µg/L (ppb), followed by Divine roots (353.67±50.40 µg/L (ppb) and Cordel silver (281.33±27.30 µg/L (ppb). There was an absence in Iketo-2 mixture. One sample t-test was computed to compare the various concentrations of Fumonisin-B1 found in the studied herbal medications with a test value of 1000 µg/L (ppb) (the maximum tolerance level of Fumonisin in consumable foodstuffs). The result showed a statistically significant decrease (P < 0.05) compared to a test value of 1000 µg/L (ppb) for all the herbal medications studied. This study reported that Fumonisin contaminations in the samples were 47(82.46%) out of 57 herbal medicine examined.
Conclusion: Ochratoxin A and Fumonisin B1 mycotoxins prevalence were very high and these occur in concentrations exceeding permissible limits. The co-occurrence of these mycotoxins in herbal samples analyzed in this study raises further awareness of the health risks consumers of these food commodities are exposed to.
Cavin C, Delatour T, Marin-Kuan M, Holzhauser D, Higgins L, Bezencxon C, Guignard G, Junod S, Richoz-Payot J, Gremaud E, Hayes JD, Nestler S, Mantle P, Schilter B. Reduction in antioxidant defenses may contribute to ochratoxin A toxicity and carcinogenicity. Canadian Journal of Botany. 2006;72:23–31.
World Health Organization. Mycotoxins international programme on chemical safety; environmental health concern 11; 1979. ISBN: 92 4 1540710.
Martins ML, Martins HM, Bernardo F. Aflatoxins in spices marketed in Portugal. Food Additives and Contaminants. 2001; 18(4):315–319.
Benett JW, Klich M. Mycotoxins. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2003;16:497-516.
Seifert KA, Aoki T, Baayen RP, Brayford D, Burgess LW, Chulze S, Gams W, Geiser D, de Gruyter J, Leslie JF, Logrieco A, Marasas WFO, Nirenberg HI, O’Donnell K, Rheeder JP, Samuels GJ, Summerell BA, Thrane U, Waalwijk C. The name Fusarium moniliforme should no longer be used. Mycological Research. 2003;107: 643-644.
Meulenberg EP. Immunochemical methods for ochratoxin detection: A review. Toxins. 2012;4: 244-266.
Meulenberg EP. Immunochemical methods for ochratoxin detection: A review. Toxins. 2012;4:244-266.
Vicam. White paper on sustainable mycotoxin testing. The economic, environmental and social benefits of multi-analyte methods. Vicam A, Waters Business, Milford M. A01757 USA; 2015.
Egbuta MA, Wanza MM, Dutton MF. Evaluation of five major mycotoxins co-contaminating two cereal grains from Nigeria. International Journal of Bio-chemistry Research & Review. 2015;6(4): 160-169.
Makun A, Hussaini A, Gbodi TH, Olufunmilayo AO, Salako EH, Ogbadu G. Fungi and some mycotoxins found in mouldy Sorghum in Niger State, Nigeria. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2009;5(1):05-17.
Bankole SA, Adebanjo A. Mycotoxins in food in West Africa: Current situation and possibilities of controlling it. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2003;2:254–263.
Afla-Guard. Aflatoxin in Africa; 2005.