Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences http://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences (ISSN:&nbsp;2394-1111)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JAMPS/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of&nbsp;Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.&nbsp;</p> en-US contact@journaljamps.com (Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences) contact@journaljamps.com (Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences) Tue, 19 May 2020 11:36:03 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 The Impact of Intervention on Pharmacists’ Counselling on Patients’ Knowledge and Opinion of Antibacterial Usage http://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS/article/view/30164 <p>The knowledge and opinion of patients on antibacterial usage depends on pharmacist’s counselling. In Nigeria, study assessing patients’ perception of pharmacists’ antibacterial counselling is scarce. This study assessed the knowledge and opinion of patients on antibacterial usage as a result of pharmacists’ counselling pre and post intervention. The study was a cross sectional study among 409 outpatients with antibacterial prescriptions in 17-government-owned secondary healthcare facilities in Ogun State of Nigeria between July 2017 and May 2018. The knowledge and the opinion of the patients were determined via structured questionnaire and deficiency was addressed via intervention training for the pharmacists. Re-assessment was carried out after a month.</p> <p>Four hundred and nine patients participated at each of the two phases of the study.&nbsp; The mean age at the baseline survey, was 43.9 ± 14.9 and the age range was 19 - 87 years while at the post intervention survey, the mean age was 44.1 ± 15.7 and the age range was from 18 to 91 years. The patients that were probed on drugs they had at hand or at home increased from 20 (4.9%) to 263 (64.3%) between the two phases. Seventeen, (4.2%) and 171 (41.8) claimed to receive counselling on necessity of completing the course of therapy at the two phases respectively. The survey confirmed that 284 (69.4%) and 319 (77.9%) at the two phases respectively were of the view that counselling on drugs is best done by pharmacists. Two hundred and fifty six (62.7%) and 262 (64.1%) patients rated the counselling they received as ≥ 70% at the two phases respectively. There was significant improvement in the knowledge and opinion of patients on antibacterial usage due to pharmacists’ counselling post intervention <em>p</em> &lt; .05. Constant training on antibacterial counselling should therefore be encouraged among pharmacists.</p> Adeola Adebisi Michael, Omole Moses Kayode, Itiola Oludele Adelanwa ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS/article/view/30164 Tue, 19 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Prophylactic and Therapeutic Effect of Aqueous Stem Extract of Costus afer on Lipids and Atherogenic Profile of Albino Rats in Acetaminophen Induced Liver Toxicity http://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS/article/view/30165 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Medicinal plants are widely used in Nigeria because they are believed to be effective in the treatment of various medical conditions and are also easily accessable with minimal side effect.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>This study evaluates the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of different doses (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight) of <em>Costus afer</em> on lipid profile of 50 male albino rats.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The research study was divided into 2 phases with 25 rats used for each phases. The 25 rats used for each phase were randomly selected into 5 groups with each group containing 5 rats. The rats used for the prophylactic phase were induced with 800 mg/kg body weight paracetamol for liver toxicity after administration of the various concentrations of aqueous stem extract of <em>C. afer </em>for 28 days while those used during the therapeutic phase were administered with the various concentrations of aqueous stem extract of <em>C. afer</em> following confirmation of liver toxicity using 800 mg/kg body weight acetaminophen. The effect of the aqueous extract was assessed by measuring the serum concentration of total cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein using Randox reagent, while low density lipoprotein was calculated from the other parameters. Atherogenic ratios were also computed. The result obtained from the experiment was subjected to statistical analysis using Graph pad prism version 5.3 and values were considered significant at p&lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL levels were significantly (p&lt;0.05) reduced and HDL significantly increased in the treatment groups (prophylactic and therapeutic phases) compared to the positive control. When both phases were compared, total cholesterol and triglycerides showed significant (p&lt;0.05) difference in concentration in groups fed with 400 mg/kg, 200 mgkg while LDL-C showed significant (p&lt;0.05) variation between the two phases only at 400 mg/kg body weight. The extracts were also found to significantly (p&lt;0.05) reduce the atherogenic status of the albino rats in both phases of treatment and between each treatment phase.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Findings from this study suggest that <em>Costus afer</em> possesses the ability to regulate paracetamol induced dyslipidaemia and improve the anti-atherogenic status of treated albino rats.</p> L. L. Nwisah, T - E. G. Davies, E. S. Bartimaeus ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS/article/view/30165 Mon, 25 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Pharmacological Investigation of Serial Anxiety Tests in the Mouse: A Pilot Study http://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS/article/view/30166 <p>The use of test batteries has been suggested as a means to enhance throughput, to broaden the spectrum of anxiety parameters detectable and to minimise the numbers of experimental animals required in behavioural studies. This study was undertaken to determine the sensitivity of test batteries each of open field, zero mazes and staircase tests to anxiety behaviours in randomised mouse groups. Mice (n = 8) were exposed to these apparatuses serially in that order, thirty minutes following intraperitoneal administration of distilled water, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg diazepam.&nbsp; Each mouse was allowed to spend 5 minutes to freely explore each test apparatus.&nbsp; The results showed diazepam-treated mice exhibited significantly (p&lt;0.05) reduced anxiety behaviours compared to the placebo group on most rodent anxiety parameters evaluated. The findings of this study suggest these behavioural test apparatuses, when used in serial combination, are sensitive and reliable to measure murine anxiety-related behaviours and the anxiolytic effects of standard/putative agents.</p> A. M. Umarudeen, M. G. Magaji, O. S. Bello, C. Aminu, M. I. Abdullahi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS/article/view/30166 Wed, 27 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Anaemia, Body Mass Index and Risk Factors Association with Malarious Pregnant Women in Ebonyi State, Nigeria http://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS/article/view/30167 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Malaria in pregnancy is a weighty health problem in sub-Saharan Africa where 90% of the global malaria burden occurs, therefore there is urgent need for more researches on malaria in pregnancy to reduce its mortality and morbidity. Anaemia, body mass index and risk factors association with malarious pregnant women in Ebonyi State was investigated in this study.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>A cross-sectional study on malaria infection among pregnant women in Ebonyi State, Nigeria was carried out from April 2011 to March 2012 from two selected hospitals.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Venous blood samples were collected for thick and thin films blood smears for microscopic examinations. Presence or absence of anaemia was determined by measuring haemoglobin concentration spectrophotometrically using the cyanmethemoglobin method. Chi-square (χ2<strong>) </strong>was used to analyse the data collected. Statistical significance was set at P &lt; 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The result showed that out of 360 pregnant women sampled with average age of (26.54 ± 4.61), infection rate of 150 (41.7%) was observed. The prevalence of anaemia was 202(56.1%) and it was highly associated with malaria, infection was higher among pregnant women who were anaemic than those who were not. Also, body mass index is associated with malaria as it showed its highest prevalence amongst overweight pregnant women. The risk factors associated with malaria in this study were rainy season, primigravidae and primary education.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Increased awareness about anaemia, body mass index and risk factors such as rainy season, primigravidae and primary education association with malaria as established in this study could help in the reduction of the burden of malaria among pregnant women.</p> C. A. Imakwu, J. C. Ozougwu, O. P. Okeke, G. U. Amana, S. C. Eziuzor ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS/article/view/30167 Mon, 01 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000