Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2019-11-16T07:25:51+00:00 Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences (ISSN:&nbsp;2394-1111)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JAMPS/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of&nbsp;Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.&nbsp;</p> Quantitative Phytochemical Analysis and Antifungal Susceptibility of Azardirachta indica against Some Strains of Candida albicans 2019-11-16T06:59:09+00:00 A. D. M. Owoyale M. Galadimma S. Y. Daniyan N. Adabara <p>This research work was focus on determining the quantitative phytochemical analysis and antifungal susceptibility of <em>Azardirachta indica</em> against some strains of <em>Candida albicans</em>. The leaves of <em>Azardirachta indica</em> was susccessively extracted using reflux method of extraction. Quantitative phytochemical screenings were done to determine the amounts of phytochemical that are present in the crude extracts. The result showed that the extract of <em>Azardirachta indica</em> (neem) possessed active principles which include: Alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, phenols and tannin which were present in the crude extracts. The antifungal activity of the extracts was assayed against three different strains (P37005, RM1000 &amp; SC5314) The antifungal susceptibility test of the crude extracts against the strains were determined at different concentrations of 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg/ml using the&nbsp; agar well diffusion method. The n- hexane and methanol crude extract showed inhibitory activity compared to that of ethyl acetate that had no inhibitory activity. The highest mean zone of inhibition (MZI) was 15.00±1.00 mm which was recorded for n-hexane leaf extract at a concentration of 100 mg/ml against strain RM1000 (isolate: S2). Although the standard antibiotics (Fluconazole) used in this study showed a much higher zone of inhibition than that of the n-hexane and methanol crude extract. The MIC and MFC value for n-hexane crude extracts were 12.5 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml respectively against strain P37005 (Isolate:S1)likewise, the n-hexane crude extract had a value of 6.25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml. However, the methanol crude extract showed a value of 6.25 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml respectively against SC5314 (isolate:S3).</p> 2019-10-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of Antioxidant Status and Lipid Peroxidation in Pre-Eclampsia 2019-11-16T06:59:08+00:00 Patrick O. Manafa Charles C. Onyenekwe Anselem C. Igwe Nancy A. Mbachu George O. Chukwuma Rebecca C. Chukwuanukwu Vera I. Manafa Kenneth E. Nwene Nancy C. Ibeh <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To assess the role of antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>This is a case-control study designed to evaluate the levels of malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity with glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in pre-eclamptic. One hundred (100) participants were randomly selected to include fifty pre-eclamptic (test), twenty-five (25) healthy pregnant normotensive women (control A) and twenty-five healthy non-pregnant normotensive women (control B).</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>This study was carried out at the Holy Rosary Hospital waterside, Onitsha, Anambra state. Nigeria. The study lasted for 13 months.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> One hundred women (50 pre-eclamptic, 25 pregnant normotensives and 25 non-pregnant normotensives) aged 25-40 years were recruited for this study. Blood samples were collected from the participants for the estimation of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities using spectrophotometric methods.&nbsp;Blood pressures were measured using accosson sphygmomanometer. Data were&nbsp;analysed using analysis of variance and Pearson’s correlation coefficient at p &lt; 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The TAC was significantly higher in the pregnant normotensives (p&lt; 0.05) compared with the pre-eclamptic and non-pregnant normotensives. There was no significant difference in the MDA in pre-eclamptic compared with pregnant normotensives and non-pregnant normotensives (p&gt;0.05). A significant difference was observed in the SOD and GPx activities in the pregnant normotensive and non-pregnant normotensives compared with pre-eclamptic.&nbsp;A positive correlation was observed between the blood pressures (systolic and diastolic) and the activities of TAC, SOD and GPx in pre-eclamptic. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between MDA levels and SBP (r = 0.019) while a negative correlation (r = -0.225) existed between MDA and DBP.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Diminished ability of antioxidants to scavenge free radicals may affect the onset of pre-eclampsia and therefore possible prognostic tool in its management.</p> 2019-10-23T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Cephalometric Analysis of Sella Turcica for Age Determination from Sokoto, Nigeria: A Radiological Study 2019-11-16T06:59:07+00:00 Z. Usman G. H. Yunusa A. Bello J. D. Usman A. Aliu S. S. Bello I. M. Ahmad M. A. Musa T. Ammani G. B. Marwan R. Bello A. M. Ahmed U. Abubakar B. O. Onimisi H. A. Bunza A. D. Zagga <p>Cephalometry deals with the measurement of the head or radiological specimen of the head. Sella turcica is an important anatomical structure located in the middle cranial fossa, housing the pituitary gland. Various shapes and sizes of the sellae turcica have been reported. However, in this study, using computerized tomographic (CT) scans, one hundred and seventy-five (175) scans were analyzed using Radiant version 4.2 for determination of sizes and shapes of the sella. Average dimensions from the study include length (12.4mm), A-P diameter (14.1 m), depth (9.6 mm) and transverse diameter (13.8mm). Shapes were classified as being round (56.6%), oval (32%) and flat (11.4%). Males tend to have higher sella sizes than females and there are statistically &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;significant differences between them especially in respect to A-P diameter and length parameters. Also, there is a statistically significant relationship between age groups in terms of A-P diameter and depth of the sella turcica. However, there is no correlation between age and shapes found in the study.</p> 2019-10-24T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antimicrobial Activity of Methanolic, Aqueous and Partially Purified Protein of Young and Matured Leaves of Guiera senegalensis (Moshi Medicine) 2019-11-16T07:25:51+00:00 M. K. Jiyil C. E. Mafuyai M. I. Shago H. M. Inuwa <p><strong>Background:</strong> Microorganisms have evolved defence mechanisms against antimicrobial agents and have become resistant to some antibiotics.</p> <p><strong>Aim of the Study:</strong> This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of methanol as well as that of the aqueous and partially purified protein of&nbsp;&nbsp; young and matured leaves of <em>Guiera senegalensis</em>.</p> <p><strong>Study Duration: </strong>This study was conducted on 30<sup>th</sup> January, 2015 at the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Ahmadu&nbsp; Bello University Zaria, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: Antimicrobial activity was determined using disc diffusion and broth dilution techniques, Gel chromatography techniques were used to fractionate the crude protein.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The Test isolates were <em>Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Candida albicans</em>. All the extracts were sensitive to most of the isolates except <em>Candida albican</em> (fungus).</p> <p>The crude and partially purified proteins were active against the Gram positive bacteria<em>.</em> The maximum zone of inhibition (42.00±1.00 mm) was observed in the methanol extract of a young leaf against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> at 100 mg/ml. The methanol extracts exhibited minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at a range of 6.25 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) at 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml. The young leaf was more active than the matured leaf. Quantitative phytochemicals showed high amounts of saponins (26.20% and 19.66%) in matured and young leaves respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This research justifies the traditional claim of <em>Guiera senegalensis</em> leaves for therapeutic purposes. The leaves can be used to remedy diseases caused by bacterial agents.</p> 2019-11-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##