Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2020-04-07T13:14:02+00:00 Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences (ISSN:&nbsp;2394-1111)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JAMPS/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of&nbsp;Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.&nbsp;</p> Effect of Caffeine at Different Concentrations on Behavior and Motor Activity in Mice 2020-04-07T13:14:02+00:00 Sakina S. Saadawi Khairi A. Alennabi Sumaya Baayo Amera Fares Najwa Alosta Suher M. Aburawi <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This article aimed to study the effect of different caffeine concentrations on behaviour and motor activity of mice.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> This study took place in Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Tripoli, and was conducted between 2017 to 2018.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The experiment was carried out using 24 male mice (25-30 gm). Plus maze was used for screening antianxiety effect of caffeine. While swimming maze was used to test the antidepressant effect. Descriptive statistics was performed using SPSS (version 22), followed by one sample Kolmogorov-Simirnov test. One-Way ANOVA was applied to compare between groups and Post Hoc test (LSD).&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> At a dose of 100 mg/kg, caffeine produce significant decrease in the duration of immobility using forced swimming maze; while the lower (25 mg/kg) and the higher (200 mg/kg) doses did not produce any changes compared to the control. In plus maze, Caffeine decreases the anxiety measure at the dose used of 100 mg/kg; but did not change the anxiety measure when lower (25 mg/kg) or higher (200 mg/kg) doses used compared to the control. The spontaneous motor activity was decreased significantly after administration of the higher dose of 200 mg/kg; the lower dose (25 mg/kg) showed insignificant increase, while the dose of 100 mg/kg produce insignificant decrease in the spontaneous motor activity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Caffeine has dose dependent effect, in a dose 100 mg/kg it produce anxiolytic and antidepressant like action, while lower (25 mg/kg) and higher (200 mg/kg) doses did not show any changes. Caffeine also produce dose dependent decrease in the spontaneous motor activity, this indicate that caffeine produce CNS depression with higher doses.</p> 2020-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Phytochemistry and Toxicity of Methanol Root Extract of Costus lucanusianus 2020-04-06T10:52:33+00:00 Hope Delesi Kagbo Lilian Ayagogo Gospel <p><em>Costus lucanusianus</em> (ginger lily or monkey sugarcane) is a medicinal plant commonly used to treat various ailments in tropical Africa. The leaves, stem and sometimes the root have been exploited for this purpose. However, it is a common belief in the Niger Delta of Nigeria that the root is poisonous. This study investigated the phytochemical and acute toxicity profiles of the methanol root extract of the plant. Phytochemical screening was conducted using standard procedures to test for alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, anthraquinones, glycosides, triterpenoids/steroids and carbohydrates. The median lethal dose (LD<sub>50</sub>) was determined using the Arithmetic method of Reed and Muench. This was followed by haematologic, liver and kidney functionality assays at doses of 14, 29 and 58 mg/kg of the methanol root extract. The result obtained showed that the extract contained flavonoids, saponins, triterpenoids and steroids among others, but anthraquinones and alkaloids were not present. The median lethal dose (LD<sub>50</sub>) value obtained for the extract was 288 mg/kg. The haematologic assay showed significant, p&lt;0.001, dose-dependent decrease in red blood cell parameters and also some white blood cell parameters (such as white blood cell, neutrophil, monocytes and eosinophil counts). Furthermore, the serum levels of the liver enzymes, electrolytes (except K<sup>+</sup>), urea and creatinine increased significantly as the doses increased. From the foregoing, it could be concluded that the root of <em>Costus lucanusianus</em> is toxic to the kidney and liver and could be a blood poison (hemotoxic). This confirms the ethnobotanical belief that this part of the plant (root) is poisonous.</p> 2020-04-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##