http://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS/issue/feed Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2020-02-19T11:01:27+00:00 Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences contact@journaljamps.com Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences (ISSN:&nbsp;2394-1111)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JAMPS/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of&nbsp;Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.&nbsp;</p> http://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS/article/view/30149 Evaluation of the Levels of Ochratoxin A and Fumonisin B1 Mycotoxins in Herbal Traditional Medicines Selected from Vendor Dealers in Ebonyi State of Nigeria 2020-02-19T11:01:27+00:00 Richard C. Ikeagwulonu rikeagwulonu@gmail.com Charles C. Onyenekwe Ifeanyi O. Oshim Zeal C. Ikeagwulonu Chiedozie K. Ojide Nkechi A. Olise <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To determine the concentration of Ochratoxin A and Fumonisin B1 mycotoxins in herbal medications available in markets in Ebonyi State.</p> <p><strong>Study</strong> <strong>Design:</strong> This is a cross-sectional study designed to determine the levels of Ochratoxin A and Fumonisin B1 mycotoxins in herbal traditional medications selected from vendor dealers. One hundred and fourteen (114) herbal medication samples were selectively obtained from local market and stores in Ebonyi state using a multistage random sampling technique.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>This study was carried out at Abakaliki, Ezza-North, Afikpo North, Ohaukwu, Ikwo and Ebonyi metropolises. This study lasted for 12 months.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong>&nbsp; One hundred and fourteen (114) herbal medication samples examined, fifty-seven (57) each of herbal traditional medicine samples, were selectively analysed for the presence of Ochratoxin A and Fumonisin B1 mycotoxins respectively together with the controls. Mycotoxins occurrence and levels were determined using lateral flow immunoassay technique. The data were&nbsp;&nbsp; presented as percentage, mean ± standard deviation. All data were analysed by one sample t-test and descriptive statistics and statistical significant was set at P ≤ 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The content of ochratoxin A was statistically significant different (P &lt; 0.05) compared to a test value of 5 µg/L (ppb) for all the herbal medications. The concentration in Goodswill, Divine roots, Zaram pile, African Iba, Akwasa and Restorative Tonic herbal medications were significantly higher when compared to 5 µg/L (ppb). Contrary, the presence of this mycotoxin in Goko mixture was not detected. The contamination with Ochratoxin A was recorded in 51(89.47%) out of 57 examined samples of herbal medicine. The highest concentration of Ochratoxin A was found in Goodswill (23.66±3.51 µg/L (ppb) followed by restorative tonic (22.67±2.52 µg/L (ppb).In addition, examination of fumonsin mycotoxin content in the reorder as studied herbal medications. showed that the highest concentration was found in Ukwara (634.33±8.00 µg/L (ppb), followed by Divine roots (353.67±50.40 µg/L (ppb) and Cordel silver (281.33±27.30 µg/L (ppb). There was an absence in Iketo-2 mixture. One sample t-test was computed to compare the various concentrations of Fumonisin-B1 found in the studied herbal medications with a test value of 1000 µg/L (ppb) (the maximum tolerance level of Fumonisin in consumable foodstuffs). The result showed a statistically significant decrease (P &lt; 0.05) compared to a test value of 1000 µg/L (ppb) for all the herbal medications studied. This study reported that Fumonisin contaminations in the samples were 47(82.46%) out of 57 herbal medicine examined.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Ochratoxin A and Fumonisin B1 mycotoxins&nbsp;&nbsp; prevalence were very high and these occur in concentrations exceeding permissible limits. The co-occurrence of these mycotoxins in herbal samples analyzed in this study raises further awareness of the health risks consumers of these food commodities are exposed to.</p> 2020-02-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS/article/view/30150 Lipidaemic and Hepatic Status of Type 2 Diabetic Rats Treated with the Polyherbal Capsule Glucoblock 2020-02-19T11:01:26+00:00 O. N. Briggs Ojoye.briggs@ust.edu.ng K. N. Elechi-Amadi F. C. Ezeiruaku R. E. Teme <p>The scourge of diabetes has led to an increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine. The lack of regulation and control leads to the indiscriminate use of these herbals, with potential risk to patients.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>This study evaluates the lipidaemic and hepatic status of type 2 diabetic rats treated with the polyherbal capsule glucoblock.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A total of 35 male Wistar albino rats weighing between 120-220 g were used for this study. The rats were placed on high fat diet and diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of freshly prepared streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg/kg body wt). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was determined using the glucose oxidase method. Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG) and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined using enzymatic methods. Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated using the Friedewald’s equation. Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) were determined using Reitman-Frankel method, while alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was determined using the colorimetric phenolphthalein method. Liver sections were stained using haematoxylin and eosin (H&amp;E) staining technique, and phytochemical analysis was also done on the herbal capsule.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results show no significant differences in TC levels in all groups compared to the negative control. TG level was significantly higher in the diabetic control group when compared to the negative control. TG level in the singular treatment groups were significantly lower, but the combination group (glibenclamide + glucoblock) showed no significant difference compared to the diabetic control. The negative control had significantly higher HDL-C compared to the diabetic control and treatment groups. There were no significant differences in HDL-C levels in all the treatment groups, when compared to the diabetic control. The negative control had significantly lower LDL-C compared to the diabetic control and treatment groups. There were no significant differences in LDL-C levels in all the treatment groups, when compared to the diabetic control. ALT, AST and ALP levels were significantly higher in the diabetic control, but was significantly reduced to normal levels by the treatments. Liver sections of the negative control showed normal histoarchitecture. The diabetic control showed inflammation and fatty deposition. The treatment groups showed a nearly normal histoarchitecture, with fatty deposits.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> High fat diet in combination with a sub-diabetic dose of streptozotocin produced significant diabetes in the Wistar rats with dyslipidaemia and elevated liver enzyme levels. The anti-diabetic treatments, glibenclamide and glucoblock did not correct the dyslipidaema caused by diabetes. However, the treatments had equipotent hepatoprotective effect and restored liver enzyme levels to normal as well as improving liver histology.</p> 2020-02-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS/article/view/30151 Evaluation of Antihyperlipidaemic Activities of Hydromethanolic Extracts of Dioscorea bulbifera 2020-02-15T05:21:18+00:00 Bruno Chukwuemeka Chinko bruno.chinko@uniport.edu.ng Datonye Victor Dapper Olaghaguo Maestephen Adienbo <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Hyperlipidemia is a leading cause of cardiovascular diseases (CHDs) with treatment ranging from dietary management and the use of antihyperlipidaemic drugs. The desire for anti-hyperlipidaemic drugs with less side effects has led to the screening of medical with anti-hyperlipidaemic properties.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The present study is aimed at evaluating the effects of hydromethanolic extracts of <em>Dioscorea bulbifera </em>on high fat diet, tyloxapol and dexamethasone induced hyperlipidaemia using Wistar rat models.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Fifty five (55) adult male Wistar rats weighing 180-250 g were used for the study. Natural induction of hyperlipidaemia was done using a formulated High fat diet made from commercial rat chow and rendered cow fat while chemical induction of hyperlipidaemia was done using tyloxapol (200 mg/kg) and dexamethasone (20 mg/kg). The Wistar rats where divided into eleven (11) groups comprising four (5) control groups and seven (6) experimental groups. The extracts were used to treat the hyperlipidaemic rats at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg while Simvastatin was used as a standard. Blood samples of the animals were analyzed for Total cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), High density lipoproteins (HDL), Low density lipoproteins (LDL), Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and Serum glucose were determined by standard enzymatic methods.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results indicate that the hyperlipidaemic rats treated with extracts of <em>Dioscorea bulbifera </em>had significantly reduced TC, TG, LDL, VLDL and serum glucose compared with the control (untreated hyperlipidaemic rats) (P&lt;0.05). In the same way, the HDL was found to be significantly higher among the treated hyperlipidaemic rats compared with the untreated controls.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present study shows that hydromethanolic extracts of <em>Dioscorea bulbifera </em>has a possible antihyperlipidaemic potentials as demonstrated by its ability to significantly improve lipid profile and lower serum glucose levels in hyperlipidaemic rat models.</p> 2020-02-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS/article/view/30152 Investigation of the Levels of Total Aflatoxin in Herbal Traditional Medicines from Selected Vendors Dealers in South-Eastern Nigeria 2020-02-18T09:56:44+00:00 Richard C. Ikeagwulonu rikeagwulonu@gmail.com Chinedum C. Onyenekwe Ifeanyi O. Oshim Nkechi A. Olise Oluwayemisi Odeyemi Chiedozie K. Ojidei <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To investigate the levels of total aflatoxin (AF) in herbal medicines from selected vendors in South- Eastern Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Study</strong> <strong>Design:</strong> This is a cross-sectional study designed to investigate the levels of aflatoxin (AF) mycotoxin in herbal traditional medicines selected randomly from vendor dealers in Ebonyi State of&nbsp; Nigeria. Fifty-seven (57) herbal medicine samples were obtained from local markets and stores in Ebonyi state, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>This study was carried out at Abakaliki, Ezza-North, Afikpo North, Ohaukwu, Ikwo in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. This study covered a period of one year from April, 2018 to April, 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong>&nbsp; Fifty-seven (57) herbal medicine samples were analyzed to detect the level of aflatoxin (AF) mycotoxins with the controls. They were selected with self-administered questionnaire using a multistage random sampling technique. Wet extraction was performed on the liquid herbal samples whereas aflatoxin occurrence and levels were evaluated using lateral flow immunoassay technique. Data were analyzed using One sample t-test and descriptive statistics and statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The incidence of Aflatoxin contamination in the samples were 48(84.21%) out of 57 herbal medicine<strong>s</strong> examined with the highest level seen in African Iba herbal (20.00±2.00 ppb)&nbsp; and the lowest level seen in Dunamis and Divine roots herbals (0.00 ± 0.00). Data from the analysis of herbal medicine samples showed different concentration range of mycotoxins AFs (0-20 ppb).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Although aflatoxins concentration observed in the herbal samples were below Nigerian and European Union (EU) upper limits of 20 ppb, the high incidence rate observed in the study should be of concern to public health. The policy makers in the Nigerian agricultural and health sectors have been provided with research evidence as contained in this study on the dangers posed by consumption of some herbal medicines as a result of their aflatoxin contamination.</p> 2020-02-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://journaljamps.com/index.php/JAMPS/article/view/30153 Socio-Demographic and Clinical Profiles of Cannabis Abusers Admitted for Treatment in a Tertiary Healthcare Facility in Uyo, South-South Nigeria 2020-02-18T10:05:03+00:00 Jombo, Henry Effiong hjombo@yahoo.com Alphonsus Udo Idung Victory Edet Iyanam <p><strong>Background:</strong> Cannabis is one of the commonly abused psychoactive substances worldwide. The increasing abuse of this psychoactive substance is recognized as a significant public health problem in many developing countries. A proper assessment of the patterns and trends of cannabis use disorders will be useful because of the increasing number of cannabis abusers worldwide and demand for appropriate treatment.</p> <p><strong>Aims:</strong> This study examined the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of cannabis abusers admitted for treatment in a tertiary healthcare institution in the South-South region of Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>This was a retrospective study involving 105 subjects of cannabis abusers admitted for treatment over a one year period from August 2017 to July 2018. Socio-demographic and clinical variables were obtained from a careful chart review using a 35 item questionnaire. Diagnoses were made according to the International Classification of Disease Criteria (ICD-10).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> 105 subjects were included in this study. The mean age of patients was 29.71±8.2. The mean age of initiation of substance use was 19.05±3.0 years. Males were predominantly involved in cannabis abuse practices. The age of initiation of substance use was significantly different between the male and female subjects (t=-2.86, <em>P=.009).</em> The age of initiation and duration of substance use was significantly related to the risk of developing substance dependence and psychotic symptoms.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Cannabis was commonly abused by people who were often unemployed, single, young males involved in multiple drug abuse. The low mean duration of use, multiple substance abuses together with increasing frequency of psychiatric morbidity forms a major challenge for our mental health care services. There is the need for preventive, curative, and rehabilitative strategies to reduce the public health impact of this scourge.</p> 2020-02-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##