Evaluation of the Levels of Ochratoxin A and Fumonisin B1 Mycotoxins in Herbal Traditional Medicines Selected from Vendor Dealers in Ebonyi State of Nigeria

Main Article Content

Richard C. Ikeagwulonu
Charles C. Onyenekwe
Ifeanyi O. Oshim
Zeal C. Ikeagwulonu
Chiedozie K. Ojide
Nkechi A. Olise

Abstract

Aim: To determine the concentration of Ochratoxin A and Fumonisin B1 mycotoxins in herbal medications available in markets in Ebonyi State.

Study Design: This is a cross-sectional study designed to determine the levels of Ochratoxin A and Fumonisin B1 mycotoxins in herbal traditional medications selected from vendor dealers. One hundred and fourteen (114) herbal medication samples were selectively obtained from local market and stores in Ebonyi state using a multistage random sampling technique.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at Abakaliki, Ezza-North, Afikpo North, Ohaukwu, Ikwo and Ebonyi metropolises. This study lasted for 12 months.

Methodology:  One hundred and fourteen (114) herbal medication samples examined, fifty-seven (57) each of herbal traditional medicine samples, were selectively analysed for the presence of Ochratoxin A and Fumonisin B1 mycotoxins respectively together with the controls. Mycotoxins occurrence and levels were determined using lateral flow immunoassay technique. The data were   presented as percentage, mean ± standard deviation. All data were analysed by one sample t-test and descriptive statistics and statistical significant was set at P ≤ 0.05.

Results: The content of ochratoxin A was statistically significant different (P < 0.05) compared to a test value of 5 µg/L (ppb) for all the herbal medications. The concentration in Goodswill, Divine roots, Zaram pile, African Iba, Akwasa and Restorative Tonic herbal medications were significantly higher when compared to 5 µg/L (ppb). Contrary, the presence of this mycotoxin in Goko mixture was not detected. The contamination with Ochratoxin A was recorded in 51(89.47%) out of 57 examined samples of herbal medicine. The highest concentration of Ochratoxin A was found in Goodswill (23.66±3.51 µg/L (ppb) followed by restorative tonic (22.67±2.52 µg/L (ppb).In addition, examination of fumonsin mycotoxin content in the reorder as studied herbal medications. showed that the highest concentration was found in Ukwara (634.33±8.00 µg/L (ppb), followed by Divine roots (353.67±50.40 µg/L (ppb) and Cordel silver (281.33±27.30 µg/L (ppb). There was an absence in Iketo-2 mixture. One sample t-test was computed to compare the various concentrations of Fumonisin-B1 found in the studied herbal medications with a test value of 1000 µg/L (ppb) (the maximum tolerance level of Fumonisin in consumable foodstuffs). The result showed a statistically significant decrease (P < 0.05) compared to a test value of 1000 µg/L (ppb) for all the herbal medications studied. This study reported that Fumonisin contaminations in the samples were 47(82.46%) out of 57 herbal medicine examined.

Conclusion: Ochratoxin A and Fumonisin B1 mycotoxins   prevalence were very high and these occur in concentrations exceeding permissible limits. The co-occurrence of these mycotoxins in herbal samples analyzed in this study raises further awareness of the health risks consumers of these food commodities are exposed to.

Keywords:
Ochratoxin A, Fumonisin, mycotoxins, immunoassay, herbal traditional medicines.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ikeagwulonu, R. C., C. Onyenekwe, C., O. Oshim, I., Ikeagwulonu, Z. C., K. Ojide, C., & A. Olise, N. (2020). Evaluation of the Levels of Ochratoxin A and Fumonisin B1 Mycotoxins in Herbal Traditional Medicines Selected from Vendor Dealers in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 22(1), 1-5. https://doi.org/10.9734/jamps/2020/v22i130149
Section
Original Research Article

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