Quantitative Phytochemical Analysis and Antifungal Susceptibility of Vernonia amygdalina against Some Strains of Candida albicans

Main Article Content

A. D. M. Owoyale
M. Galadimma
S. Y. Daniyan
N. Adabara


This study was aimed at determining the quantitative phytochemical analysis and antifungal susceptibility of Vernonia amygdalina against some strains of Candida albicans.  Reflux method of extraction was used for the successive extraction of the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina. Quantitative phytochemical screenings were done to determine the amounts of phytochemicals that are present in the crude extracts, the study revealed that phytochemicals which include flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, saponins and phenol were present in the crude extracts. Three different strains (P37005, RM1000 and SC5314) were subjected for antifungal susceptibility test, the antifungal susceptibility test of the crude extracts against the strains were determined at different concentrations of 40,60, 80 and 100 mg/ml using agar well diffusion method. The highest zone of inhibition (ZOI) was 21.00 ±0.30 mm which was recorded for methanol leaf extract (MLE) at a concentration of 100 mg/ml against SC5314 (isolate:B3). The MIC and MFC values for the most active crude extracts were 12.5 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml for the n-hexane crude extract against strain P37005 (isolate B1), the value of 12.5 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml was also revealed for the n-hexane crude extract against SC5314 (isolateB3) however, the methanol crude extract showed a value of 12.5mg/ml and 50mg/ml respectively against SC5314 (isolate:B3). The results from this study suggest that n-hexane and methanol crude extract have a better antifungal activity than the ethylacetate crude extract.  This study also validate the claim of the local herbal practitioners of the use of the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina in curing candidiasis.

Phytochemical, Vernonia amygdalina, antifungal, susceptibility, strains, crude extract.

Article Details

How to Cite
Owoyale, A., Galadimma, M., Daniyan, S., & Adabara, N. (2019). Quantitative Phytochemical Analysis and Antifungal Susceptibility of Vernonia amygdalina against Some Strains of Candida albicans. Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 21(3), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.9734/jamps/2019/v21i330132
Original Research Article


Jeh U, Ejike CE. Current perspectives on the medicinal potential of Vernonia amygdalina Del. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research. 2011;5(7):1051–1061.

Ajibesin KK, Ekpo BA, Bala DN, Essien EE, Adesanya SA. Ethnobotanical survey of Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. Journal of. Ethnopharmacology. 2008;115:387-408.

Izevbigie EB, Bryant JL, Walker AA. Novel natural inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinases and human breast cancer cell growth. Experimental Biology and Medicine (Maywood). 2004;229(2): 163-169.

Yedjou C, Izebigie E, Tchounwou P. Preliminary assessment of Vernonia amydalina leaf extracts as DNA damaging anti-cancer agent in the management of breast cancer. International Journal of Environmental Research. Public Health. 2008;12:123-12.

Koshy P, Sri-Nurestri AM, Wira-Karnian S, Sim KS, Saravana K, Hong SL, Lee GS, Syarifat NSA. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plant from Malasia. America Journal of Applied Science. 2009; 6(8):1613-1617.

John TC, Heidi L, Lawrence CP. Manual of medical mycology. Cambridge, Mass USA: Blackwell scientific, C. 1995;83-98.

Cheesbrough M. Laboratory Manual. In: District laboratory practice in tropical countries. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. 2000;180-300.

National Centre for Biotechnology and Information (NCBI). Sequence BLAST; 1988.

Hymete A, Iversen TH, Rohloff J, Erko B. Screening of echinops ellenbeckii and echinops longisetus for biological activities and chemical constituents. Phytomedicine. 2004;01-03.

Chang C, Yang M, Wen H, Chern J. Estimation of total flavonoid contents in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. Journal of Food Drug Analysis. 2002;10:178-182.

Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela- Raventos RM. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidants substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin -Ciocalteu reagent. Method in Enzymology. 1999;299: 152-178.

Oloyed OI. Chemical profile of unripe pulp of Carica papaya. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2005;4(6):379-381.

Emmanuel EO, Helmina O, Egwin CE. Phytochemical constituents of seeds of ripe and unripe Blighia sapida (K Koening) and physicochemical properties of the seed Oil. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Invention. 2014; 3(9):31-40.

Wheeler EL, Ferrel RE, Western Regional Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Servive, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Albany, California 94710; 1971.

Oke OL. Chemical studies on some Nigeria Food stuffs. Journal of West African Science Association. 1996;11:42-48.

McFarland J. Nephelomter. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1997;14: 1176-1178.

Magaldi S, Mata S, Hartung C. In vitro susceptibility of 137 Candida sp. isolates from HIV positive patients to several antifungal drugs. Mycopathologia. 2000; 149:63–68

Ewansiha JU, Garba SA, Musa G, Daniyan SY, Busari, Innalegwu DA, Doughari JH. Preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of Citrus x limon (L) Burm. f. (lemon) leaf extract against some pathogenic microorganisms for biological activities and chemical constituents; 2016.

Edeoga HO, Okwu DE, Mbaebie BO. Phytochemical constituents of some Nigeria medicine plants. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005;4:685-688.

Oke F, Aslim B. Biological potencials and cytotoxicity of various extracts from endemic Origanum minutiflorum O Schwartz, PH Davis. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2010;48:1728-1733.

Imaga NOA, Banigbetan DO. In vivo biochemical assessment of aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter leaf). International Journal of nutrition and Metabolism. 2013;52:22-27.

Al-Humaid AI, Mousa RA, El-mergawi, Abdel-Salam AM. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of dates and dates-camel-milk mixtures as a protective meal against lipid peroxidation in rats. American Journal of Food Technology. 2010;5:22-30.

Jones GA, McAllister TA, Muir AD, Cheng KJ. Effects of Safonin (Onorbrychis viciifolia scop) condensed tannins on growth and proteolysis by four strains of ruminal bacteria. Appl. Environ. Journal of Applied life Science International. 1994; 6(4):1-10.

Silver EM, Souza JNS, Rogez H, Rees JF, Larondelle Y. Antioxidant activities and polyphenolic contents of fifteen selected plant species from the Amazonian region. Food chemistry. 2007;101:1012-18.

Mamta S, Jyoti S, Rajeev N, Dharmendra S, Abhishek G. Journal of Pharmacognosy and phytochemistry. 2013;1(6):168-180.

Jisika M, Ohigashi H, Nogaka H, Tada T, Hirota M. Bitter steroid glycosides, Vernon sides A1, A2 and A3 and related B1 from the possible medicinal plant Vernonia amygdalina used by Wild Chimpanzees Tetrahedron. 1992;48:625-630

Hurrel RH, Reddy MB, Juillerat MA, Cook JD. Degredation of Phytic acid in cereal porridges improve iron absorption by human subjects. The Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2003;77(5):1213-9 .

Prescott LM, Harley JP, Klein DA. Microbiology (International edition). 5th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill companies, incorporation Screening of Echinops ellenbeckii and Echinops longisetus. 2002;811.

Gamba PE, Bala H, Goje LJ, Halidu A, Dauda MD. In vitro antimicrobial activities of Vernonia amygdalina on selected clinical isolate. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2014;3(4):1103-1113.

Okigbo RN, Mmeka EC. Antimicrobial effects of three tropical plant extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans .African Journal of Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicines; 2008.

Ijeh II, Adedokun AT. Effects of administration of ethanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina Del. On Kidney function of experimental rabbit model. Research Journal of Biotechnology. 2006; 1:34-35.

Wallack JB. Interpretation of diagnostic test. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams|& Wilkins; 2007.

Calixto JB. Efficacy, safety, quality control, marketing and regulatory guidelines for herbal medicines. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2002; 33:179-189.