Main Article Content
Aims: To evaluate the Anti-mycobacterial activity of Ficus sycomorus extracts by in vitro screening against susceptible strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to standard TB drugs.
Study Design: Hospital/University based cross sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: National Tuberculosis and Leprosy training center Zaria, Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello university Zaria. March 2015 to February 2017.
Methodology: The anti-mycobacterial activity of Ficus sycomorus (stem bark, root bark, leaves and fruits) was studied in vitro using standard Nitrate Reductase Assay techniques against susceptible strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Phytochemical analysis of the n-hexane fruit extract was done using standard test methods. Partial fractionation of the n-hexane fruit extract was done using Thin layer and column chromatography assay.
Results: n-hexane fruit extract showed activity against the tested Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M-Tb) strain. This activity was observed between 100-400 µg/mL against the susceptible strain to standard TB drugs. The crude n-hexane, leaves, root bark and stem bark extracts lacked activity against the susceptible M-Tb strain. The methanol and aqueous extracts of fruit, leaves, stem bark and root bark also lacked activity against the tested susceptible M-Tb strain. The n-hexane fruit extract (the most active extract) was then partially purified using thin layer chromatography and Column chromatography where four fractions A-D was obtained, where A lacked activity but B, C and D was measured for their Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) as 6.25 µg/mL, 25 µg/mL and 100 µg/mL respectively, therefore fraction B had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration against the tested M-Tb strain as 6.25 µg/mL. The crude n-hexane fruit extract also revealed phytochemicals of which saponins and alkaloid had the highest percentage content, (16.67±0.04%) and (6.00±0.02%) respectively
Conclusion: Therefore, these findings indicate that if Ficus sycomorus is properly explored and standardized it could be used as herbal drug against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.